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|Societe Saint-Thomas d'Aquin
Real Audio Sound Clips - For the entire interview, visit the Acadian Museum in
Interviewer: Albin Arsenault
Interviewee: Antoinette Gallant, 53
Topics: stories, legends (182k)
South Rustico (PEI)
Interviewer: Georges Arsenault
Interviewee: Théophile Blanchard, 85 years
Topics: church Rustico, first priests (109k)
École François-Buote (PEI)
French interview before a public meeting
Interviewee: Jean Belliveau
Subject: French language school in Ch'town who also serve as a community center (190k)
Interviewee: Georges Arsenault
Topics: study acadienne to the Island course on the history of the Island Acadians
Symposium on Education in french (organized by SSTA) (94k)
Interviewer: Eveline Piorier
Interviewee: Julie-Anne Pineau, 79
Subject: holidays of the year in his time (119k)
Home of the sacred heart, Charlottetown (PEI)
Interviewer: Albin Arsenault
Interviewee: Emmanuel LeClair, 89 years
Topics: stories, superstitions, riddles (697k)
Interviewer: Darlene Arsenault and unidentified man
Interviewee: Sophie Potvin
Subject: story (191k)
|Riviere du Nord-est - Excerpts from "A Second Acadia"
The first of these missionaries, little is known about the name, but the memory of Father Cassiet is still living in the south of France, his homeland, where he became, in his return from Canada, the leading restorer of famous pilgrimage of Notre-Dame-de-Betharram at the foot of the Pyrenees. Two of his nephews, aged octogenarians who still lived there a few years and which had very well known, had learned from his own mouth and forwarded several features of his life mission to the Isle Saint-Jean.
Cassiet Pierre was born in 1727 in Montaut, a small village in the country of Landes, in Béarn. He lived from his infancy in an atmosphere of faith and prayer, crucifix radiation that illuminates the paternal home, and at the foot of which his devout family, his knees every day, teaching him to join his little hands and raising his eyes and his heart to the sky. During the course of his studies at the seminary of Agen, he felt it created the first attractions of the apostolic vocation in distant countries. He came to prepare for Paris under the direction of a priest of his native country, then senior seminar Missions Etrangères de la rue du Bac. His name was on the list of a group of apostles to evangelize Cochinchina, when he was invited to replace one of the companions of the abbot Biscaretti, fell ill on the eve of leaving for Canada.
The abbot did Cassiet a brief stay in Malpec. He was replaced by Father Dosque, later parish priest of Quebec, which was the last missionary Malpec. The five parishes of the island is found, for the first time, provided each with a priest appointed by the abbot Cassiet in Saint-Louis-du-Nord-Est ... ...
The tradition preserved in the family of Father Cassiet, here we remove the veil that we stealing the kind of life that led to Saint-Louis-du-Nord-Est and the great good that is doing .
"The feasts of the Church, she says, were celebrated in his parish with such splendor and Europe. He knew how to win the trust of his parishioners. He mingled with them, interested in their businesses, taught wild plants to grow the most useful and raise pets. As there was regular communication with Bordeaux and Bayonne, he could bring his country several things of great value "... ..
One evening in late June, Father Cassiet, parish priest of Saint-Louis-du-Nord-Est, had been visited by his neighbor, Father Biscaretti, parish priest of Saint-Pierre-du-Nord. Both sat at the door of the presbytery, they discuss the latest news from the continent, following the eye that the skiffs up and down the river north-east, including the beautiful sheet of blue water under the blue sky, the rays of the sun. One of these skiffs which came back the course, took to the shore in front of the presbytery. One of the passengers who were driving with foot ashore and climbed the bank. The two priests were soon recognized a priest in a cassock worn by the newcomer. It was a rare visit to the island on that date. They came forward to meet him. The priest, the seeing, the far greeted by removing his hat that suggests a head bleached by years or by the fatigue.
Abbé Girard! cried the two priests in a voice all cheerful.
It was in fact the parish priest of Pointe-Prime.
The three priests exchanged warm handshakes, and returned to the presbytery through the carefully maintained garden, which the priest of Saint-Louis is rather to admire the flowers, vegetables, seedlings of fruit trees, with d ' all the more complacent he cultivated with his own hands. After a time of worship at the church and take a look threw in the interior freshly completed, came to sit on rustic benches arranged in front of the entrance door of the presbytery.
We bring you some details on the taking of Beausejour, the abbot asked Cassiet?
-It 's precisely what brings me, again Father Girard. I just received a long letter from the abbé Le Guern, where he tells me all the incidents of the seat. Unfortunate! continued the priest, and who can predict the result? Who would have thought that a place so well armed make a low resistance? Why it was given a position so important to this coward and scoundrel of Vergor? Ah! if the brave captain Fiedmond had been commanded, I swear he would have otherwise defended, and would eventually lay the General Monckton and his army to the sea ... ..
The principal of each parish gathered and drew a petition in which they begged the French captain to accept their bid, and allow them to remain on their land. Lord Rollo, can not violate his orders, however, permit MM. Cassiet and Biscaretti, which were the carriers of this request, to go hand-in-chief commanders. Needless approach! General Amherst and Admiral Boscawen remained inflexible, perhaps inspired by Lawrence, the fierce governor of Nova Scotia, then at Louisbourg, who, three years earlier, had, on its own and contrary to orders received from London, abducted residents of Acadia, and a desert of their establishments.
The Knight of Drucour could not provide any guarantee for the islanders and Royal Saint-Jean, they were completely thank you to the winner.
The fields covered at the time of the summer, beautiful harvest would be destroyed, animals killed or abducted, houses delivered to the flames. A crowd of Acadians from Nova Scotia, witnesses and victims of this show, three years ago, went to see it renewed before their eyes.
The abbot had Cassiet, it seems, hope that his parish would return one day because, before leaving his rectory, he had hidden under the earth sacred vessels of the church, indicating some of its churchwardens where they could find, where himself was prevented from returning. His faithful servant, a brave Acadian, was attached to his footsteps, and he provided his services until he fell from exhaustion. The unfortunate passengers were treated with the utmost inhumanity during their journey, their guardians and coarse English fanatics. Having dropped anchor in Plymouth, England, they kept their captives on board for three months, they are subject to all the tortures of hunger and thirst. Their rations were reduced to a quantity insufficient to sustain their lives, and each day we delayed the distribution of water, so that these poor people were soon exhausted by the deprivation. Thirst killed more than hunger, and when the ship finally hit the coast of Brittany, the largest party had been thrown into the sea The Abbé Cassiet had the pain of losing his faithful servant, and himself had to be expiring on the shore. He was speechless and almost unconscious. He was raised in Morlaix by a charitable lady, who sustained life for a few days he infused into his mouth some drops of honey, from time to time. After suffering horrific, recovers his health, so he headed to Paris and went running for Foreign Missions. His condition attracted the sympathies of all.
After the government promised him a pension of six hundred pounds, he headed to Rome, where he was received with the respect due to the suffering he had endured for the faith.
Returning to his native country Montaut, seeing that his pension did not come, he decided to move the claim from Paris. He procured a horse and Landes began to travel to the capital by small steps. It came down as usual for Foreign Missions, but was disappointed to find any at this time the court at Versailles, and the abbot of Jarente who had the portfolio of benefits and pensions as part of the house of the king.
Without being discouraged, Mr. Cassiet set off to Versailles the next morning. He did not suspect the dramatic which he had to report to the palace. Crossing a bridge, the horse was appalled by the encounter of a car, he took the bit between the teeth, and ran on with the speed of light. poor rider lost his hat, his cap, his whip, everything that was not with him, and he came and ruffled all the gates of the palace.
M. l'Abbé de Jarente was by chance on the steps of the main entrance, and saw the priest who came to the court in a state so curious, he took interest in him. After he overcame his natural excitement well, Mr. Cassiet explained the purpose of his visit. The abbot of Jarente hastened to assure him that his pension will be paid, he was also generous offers which were gently refused.
Our missionary was soon a small profit nearly Montaut called Las Prabendes it was soon to abandon it in favor of a young priest who later became a Carthusian in Bordeaux. He was appointed canon of Saint-Girons-de-Hagetmau but he found life too quiet and too boring for a former missionary, and by the year 1772, he offered his services to the community of priests at Calvary Betharram. There are so distinguished by his piety, his zeal and ability that he raised the office of education. Then he began to use his knowledge of agriculture which he had acquired in Canada. He gardens, planted orchards and vineyards on the banks of the Gave, and within a few years, it Quintupla income from his community. At the same time, he was able to communicate his spirit and his missionary zeal for the conquest of souls.
By this time, the abbot of Jarente, later bishop of Orleans, to the Pyrenees to breathe the air of the mountains and try the mineral waters, had occasion to visit the chapel of devout Betharram. He was delighted to renconrtrer Father Cassiet, it was impossible to forget. Without doubt that brought on the carpet the history of the horse and the comic of the abbot at the Palace of Versailles. Mr. de Jarente gave the abbot Cassiet a profit of six thousand pounds per year annuity, with no residency requirement or service. Although Mr. Cassiet no longer received his pension, he refused the offer. However, he eventually accepted a small profit of one hundred and sixty pounds in the viscount of Orthez. He was so happy, he said, to have something to wear and dress without being a burden to his congregation. His brother then offered Ten thousand Pounds to Betharram, provided that the chaplains give a mission to Montaut every ten years.
The revolution brought days of mourning for the quiet chapel of the Mountain, and Mr. Cassiet, after trying in vain to soften the authorities, became a second time, confessor of the faith and took refuge in Spain. He met somewhere in Biscay Abbé de Saint-Marc, a young priest of Grenade-sur-l'Adour, exiled like him. He persuaded him to leave for the missions of America. The young priest gave them in fact, spent several years and finally died in 1845 at the age of eighty-one years, at Mont-de-Marsan, where his memory is held in honor.
When the Catholic religion was restored in France, the abbot returned to Montaut Cassiet. He was too old and too infirm to begin restoring Betharram. Twelve priests of Calvary, there are no more than two in 1793, and were advanced in age.
The last days of Mr. Cassiet were spent in peace under heaven homeland. Given his disability, he had the permission of the Bishop of Bayonne to say Mass in their own apartments. He died in 1809, surrounded by affection and respect for all, and he was buried at the foot of the cross in the cemetery of Montaut.
P394-398 Devotion CHAPEL OF NOTRE-DAME-DE-BETHARRAM
What is the pilgrim who, from Pau to Lourdes, has not noticed, approaching the Pyrenees, the church and the Calvary of Bétharram, the imposing buildings which stand out in white lines on the mountainside? Its charm I stayed in mind as the day for the first time I've overview ago as eleven years. Little did I know, admiring the ancient and venerable sanctuary, a former missionary from Canada came to his return to work in his restaurant and had left an indelible impression.
A pilgrim of the United States who came from there to stay and has carefully reviewed, published in the Catholic World of New York, an excellent description and a specific historical j'extrais that. This same pilgrim who learned of the priest of Montaut, Father Sébie, and told curious and interesting details about the life of the abbot Cassiet.
The devout chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Betharram, located at three or four leagues of Lourdes, on the road that goes from the famous pilgrimage to Pau, was for eight hundred years the most revered shrine of Béarn, and after St Vincent de Paul, "the second or at least the third most popular of the kingdom." Founded by the Crusaders, with the kings and noble families, fostered by supernatural grace, looking with love by the poor and afflicted, sung by poets, scholars celebrated by historians, it offers all the titles in the interest pious souls.
Lourdres We left with a pleasant morning in September. The railway runs through the valley of the Gave, leaving left the holy cave of Massabielle and graceful church of the Immaculate Conception. We on the right longeâmes Forest Lourdes, and arrived in fifteen minutes at the small village of Saint-Pé, located at a bend in the river. The road continues to follow the bed received the Gave, the most picturesque and most romantic river, with its clear waters and emerald green. Ten minutes later we were at the station-Montaut Betharram, where we could see at some distance on the left, the cross of Calvary and the white domes of the Passion oratories gleaming among the green trees. The devout chapel of Notre-Dame-de Betharram which stands at the foot of the mountain, evading the sight of the other side of the Gave, a half-mile from the station. The bridge of one arch which crosses the river, is lined with ivy whose long stems almost dragged to the surface current and line the steep slopes of the shore. Nothing more picturesque. The trees bend with pensive grace over the river and the flowers bloom all along the cliff. Gave that the rushes impetuously through the valley, threatening to flood the fields, stops abruptly when approaching the chapel of the Virgin, and slid to his feet with a murmur which seemed a veiled tribute to the Patroness of the place . After crossing the bridge, you pass by a row of houses in the monastic aspect with their thick walls and narrow windows, which stood near the church whose facade looking west. The marble facade of the Pyrenees, is decorated with statues of the Evangelists with their emblems, two on each side of the Virgin crowd to its feet snake.
As the afternoon was little progress, we found the church deliciously silent. A very small number of people were praying. After paying our respects at the altar of the Blessed Virgin, we began to examine the building and to study its history. The church has three naves. The walls are covered with paintings supported by huge caryatids amid a profusion of gilding and ornaments that recall the Spanish genre. The general effect is imposing, and it breathes throughout this interior wrapped in shadow, an atmosphere of antiquity that impresses, but the church has been rebuilt, there are only two centuries. Our Lady which is a modern reproduction by Renoir, a student of Pradier is placed above the altar in the center of a glory which the rich ornaments mounted to poles. At the end of the right nave is the chapel Pastour, so named because of the bas-relief representing the legend of the shepherds who discovered the Virgin of Betharram.
Devotion to Our Lady of Bétharram, so popular in all the Pyrenees seems to have originated in the eleventh century, in this age of simple faith in which God loved to show the wonders of his grace. A legend attributes the name of a miraculous Betharram protection given to a girl in the country. This child had fallen into the Gave while picking flowers along the edges. Being driven by the current, she had instinctively appeal to the Holy Virgin appeared to him holding a branch and it gave him with which she brought to the shore. The girl offered in thanksgiving to the Holy Virgin a beautiful branch, or the language of the country beth Arram gold. Some time later, young children who enjoyed themselves at the foot of the hill Betharram of keeping their flocks, saw a dazzling light on the steep banks of the river, at the very spot where now stands the great altar of the church. As the mysterious bush on Mount Horeb, this flame shone without consumer shrubs neighbors. After a moment of amazement, the timid shepherds came, and what was their astonishment to see in the middle of a beautiful blaze statue of the Blessed Virgin and the Child Jesus. They fell to their knees before her and asked after a moment they rushed to the village of Lestelle tell the wonderful event. The people flocked in droves with the priest wearing the surplice, and all bowed in prayer before the holy image.
As the area was rocky and seemed inappropriate to build a chapel, the people began to raise a small niche at the end of the bridge, where the priest carrying the statue, amid the joyful acclamations of assistance, but this was not the place where the Virgin wanted hallowed be honored, the next day the nest was empty, and the miraculous statue will be transported to where it was first appeared. It was reported, but returned again in the same place. The people of Lestelle then decided to transfer in the village church, which he did with great pump and fixed firmly to make sure if it was moved by force or by human intervention. Despite all precautions, the statue was again found at the site of the apparition. Other signs finished to convince the population that was that Mary wanted to have a sanctuary. That was the origin of the devout chapel of Notre-Dame-de-Betharram. Destroyed by the Huguenots in the sixteenth century it was replaced at the beginning of the century, it was replaced at the beginning of the next century by the present church.
The reputation of Betharram increased shortly after the erection of a monumental cross to bear, which was phased rock on the mountainside, and which has since ceased to attract crowds of devout pilgrims to the Passion of Our Lord. Each station is marked by a superb oratory architecture, which is reproduced with the truth more dramatic scenes of the painful way. The last station, built on the highest peak represents Calvary with three crosses and the Holy Sepulcher. Nothing beautiful and exciting as to see take place on the pitch long processions of men and women of all countries who come to worship and pray in a station to another by the way of the cross.
"The chaplain's most famous Betharram the eighteenth century, says ending the pilgrim of the Catholic World, was the abbot Cassiet" and it gives the details we have reported on the former missionary of the Holy Island John.
Letter of the Father Girard to Mr. Prévost,
authorizing commissioner of Louisbourg
I received the honor of yours with an indescribable contentment, especially seeing how you are raised in all ways to relieve our poor refugees, so you are their father, or at least you can do with the functions of most tenderness marked. You can ignore none of them look for life, which makes everything in your days and your fatherly tenderness zeal usually for the good of the state and above all for the good of religion. All the people thank you many times, and I more than anyone. The harvest has not responded to the hope that we had initially designed, and wheat was premature, it is black among the wheat, which will cause a loss which can go a quarter or third. Some are half, and despite everything, we collect 6, 7 or 8 for a more or less, and nothing can be said of the insured property, and there is more or less, even in the same village and in the same land.
Our refugees in general do not lose courage and hope, working, living, but the nudity is almost universal and supreme degree, afflicts much, and I can assure you that many this winter, will be unable to to work. They lack the tools they may take cover from the harshness of cold, night and day. Most children are nodes if they can not hide, and when I go into the houses, they are all in ashes against the fire, they hide and run away, without shoes, without low without shirts, etc..
Not all are reduced to this extremity, but nearly all are in need. I felt obliged to enter into this small detail, and represent you charitably the misery of the poor, and thereby excite the compassion that is so natural, and your charity almost always ingenious in finding effective ways; and I think you will not find them bad, because I have only at heart the good of the institution, and to convince you the respect and zeal with which I have the honor to be perfectly
Your very humble and very obedient servant,
A la Pointe-Prime, 24 8bre, 1753.
Ch 10: Organization of parishes - Abbot Girard - The traitor Pichon - His trip to the Ile Saint Jean - Census of 1753.
We just see the bodies made from the french engineer for sending missionaries in parishes. The bishop of Quebec Bishop Pontbriand, which had addressed the people, having no priest at his disposal, had asked France through his vicar-general in Paris, the abbé de L'Isle -God. This was sent to the superior of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit, which had provided two of his priests, Father Abbé Perronnel and Lemaire. Abbé de L'Isle-Dieu had obtained at the same time the Minister of Shipping treatment of four hundred pounds for each of these missionaries, to support the few resources with which new settlers from the island to fill to the maintenance of these missionaries. Abbé Lemaire could not travel to St. John along with his colleague, portable chapel failing to administer the sacraments, what forced Mr. Maillard winter to send to Mr. Manach Beausejour. The abbot Perronnel took possession of the cure of Saint-Louis-du-Nord-Est in the summer of 1752, much to the delight of parishioners who hâtèrent, upon his arrival, the erection of their church. The title of St. Louis had, as we = have seen, been adopted for this parish, at a meeting held by Franquet in order to determine the site of the church.
Father Girard had taken service to the mission of the Pointe-Prime in the spring of that year, to the satisfaction of not less inhabitants of the place, because, then as now in Canada, the priest is the expression living in the parish, the first officer of Civil Affairs as well as religious. The church tower is the central meeting of all families, the pivot around which circulates every inhabitant of the place.
Career apostolic Father Girard is one of those that offer the greatest interest in the religious history of Acadia and Ile Saint-Jean.
We know the most prominent of the Acadians, which began during the long ordeal they have had to endure since the beginning of the eighteenth century. What has been less studied is the result of this unwavering commitment to both Catholic is our admiration.
A missionary zeal and an under-tested, identified by talent and a science that would have been the ornament of the most distinguished circles, doctors at the Sorbonne, such as MM. of Breslay of Noiville, theologians, such as the vicar-general of Miniac, linguists, such as Father Maillard and P. de la Brosse, went live obscurely in the middle of this rustic people, and have persevered in their work of evangelization, despite the trouble, mistrust, espionage, and sometimes open persecution they have had to suffer from fanatics authorities of Nova Scotia. Therein lies the secret of religious heroism of the French population of Acadia.
Abbé Girard was one of those workers apostolic ignored worker, known to God alone, who confessed faith in the substance of the cells to keep the heart of this people. Some features of the life of this saint missionary escaped oblivion, I want to outline here in a few lines, or, like using an old expression of Champlain, in a short speech of the most remarkable things that have happened in his life.
The vicar-general Bishop Pontbriand maintained Paris as money of Canada's missions, Father de L'Isle-Dieu, a priest was also notable for its light by his prudence and his ecclesiastical spirit. Father de L'Isle-Dieu maintained, as is known, a correspondence with the Bishop of Quebec and of Canada missionaries. I have repeatedly cited the memories that were requested by the court of Versailles. One of these memories that I have learned the following information on the apostolate of Father Girard.
Trained in all priestly virtues, possessed of a fine intellect and a tireless, Father Girard had all the qualities required to perform the difficult task of a missionary among the Acadians from Nova Scotia. It came in 1733, and was shortly after his arrival, the burden of the interesting parish of Cobequid, now Truro, which Mr. Rameau de Saint-Père told with as much charm as scholarship the origin and progress in his beautiful book, A Feudal Colony.
The first years of his ministry were relatively quiet, as the governors of Nova Scotia, living in Port Royal, did not have sufficient military force to impose their tyranny. However, when Halifax was founded, they rose up, as we have seen, the mask they had kept until now. Governor Cornwallis, furious that the priest of Cobequid advised his parishioners not to give the new oath that required them, in violation of solemn promises made by previous governors, resolved to take vengeance on brave missionary. One day he was quietly occupied its functions Curiale, he saw his rectory surrounded by a squad of eighty soldiers who seized and dragged the prisoner to Halifax with four of his parishioners. These were the attachment of the inhabitants of Cobequid for their pastor, and the fear qu'inspirait an uprising, which would have prevented his arrest, that the coup had been prepared in the deepest secrecy, and executed with such haste that the Abbé Girard was able to take the clothes he had when the soldiers put his hand on him. The five prisoners were thrown at the bottom of a dungeon, and treated with such inhumanity that the people died out of the prison. The captivity of Father Girard would have lasted long if the people of Mines, Private pastor like Cobequid, no one had asked loudly. Cornwallis, fearing to exasperate their Father Girard granted, provided that he never set foot in his former parish Mines without the permission of the governor, and moreover pledge that he not say or do anything against the British government, in other words, that neither guard his flock against the traps that kept their tender.
In August 1751, three Micmac Indians will cast him to the suddenly brought into the woods, and never in front of relâchèrent port Tagamigouche, located towards the Ile Saint - Jean. Not daring to show up in populated places for fear of falling again into the hands of Cornwallis, he wandered into the woods until the following spring. He received instructions from the Bishop of Quebec to go lead the parish at Pointe-Prime.
Some inhabitants of this parish came from Cobequid, and the presence of Father Girard, they were very attached, had naturally attract a large number of other parishioners of his former mission.
|L'Acadie de l'Isle Saint-Jean
Acadians on Ile St. Jean
In April 1720, in the harbor of Rochefort, France, were three small boats full of passengers, provisions and ammunition, in a word, everything that was necessary to establish a new settlement in a wild and uncultivated. Four months later, these same vessels anchored in the bay of Port Lajoie (Charlottetown). No sooner landed, after their long and painful journey, new settlers began to work. The forest covers the entire scope of this new country and even down the cliff. It takes courage to attack the virgin forest, but our men were in the race of pioneers and pioneers. After a few weeks, we had prepared a pitch for a small town. They built some houses on piece piece with a strong four bastions was built and it raised a large black cross over a field devoted to the dead and the first facility in the french Ile St-Jean had been founded.
We did this first institution of very rare and brief details, but they have the advantage of being official, it is the records of baptisms, marriages and burials held in the year 1721 by the missionaries, and census made in the Island in 1728, 1735 and 1753. By using these parts, you can follow, so to speak, step by step, the march of the first settlers, from their point of departure to the training and development of each institution.
It was the Count of St-Pierre who had led the settlers in the Ile St-Jean. Around this time, he had first met the abbot of Breslay. He asked him to accompany him as a missionary in his new colony. It was not hard to convince because the abbot of Breslay took a strong and full of enthusiasm for the hard labors of the Canadian missions. A young Sulpician, the abbot of Métivier, sailed with him. Both missionaries were already in the island over the past few months, when the abbot of Breslay wrote the first act in the records of Port Lajoie: the marriage of François du Rocher, a fisherman, originally from Britain, and Elizabeth Bruneau, the April 10, 1721.
The most immediate source of profit in the Island at that time was the fisheries. It was this reason that hired the Count St-Pierre to come sit down one of its facilities in Havre St-Pierre, whose surroundings offered at the same time land in favor of culture. During the years 1720 and 1721, it installed all ten families who were engaged in fishing. Five other families settled in Port Lajoie, three families, the River North-East (East River) and two at the edge of the East. At the end of the year 1721, the first nucleus of colonization in the Ile St-Jean was formed. It consisted of twenty families forming in any one hundred individuals. From that time, he moved to the Island, two trends of immigration, one came from France, one of Acadia.
In 1722, in Port Lajoie, a certain tract of land had been cleared and we saw a small village built of wood. It consisted of a house for the governor, which housed a barracks for troops, stores, warehouses, a few houses and a small church that the abbot of Breslay was dedicated as the St. John the Evangelist.
In August 1723, a new missionary was installed at Port Lajoie, under the roof once occupied by the abbot of Breslay and his colleague Father of Métivier. The new missionary, Father Louis Barbet Dulonjon that was his name, was the new chaplain of the garrison and was also responsible for servicing the whole island. Dulonjon father did not stay in the Island for a year. His successor who lived there from 1725 to 1729 was Father Felix Pain. From that date until the year 1758. - Year of the dispersion of the Acadians from Ile - there were at Port Lajoie, seventeen priests who succeeded in turn. In addition to those in Port Lajoie, there was also the abbot Girard, who was pastor at Pointe Prime, between 1752 and 1758, in St. Louis du Nord-Est (Scotch fort) Perronnel abbot from 1752 to 1753: the Cassiet abbot from 1753 to 1758, in St. Pierre du Nord, (St. Peter's Bay) the abbot of Biscaretti from 1753 to 1758, at the Holy Family of Malpec, Father Cassiet from 1752 to 1753 and the Dosque abbot from 1753 to 1758. These few facts, without further comment, will be sufficient to convince us of the work in the religious sphere during the French occupation from 1720 to 1758.
We already know that the settlement of the Ile St-Jean was begun in 1720, and in 1721 the population consisted of twenty families. In 1728 occurred the first official census of the Island. There are fifty-seven families, including eighteen remained in St. Pierre; haven of fifteen Sauvages (Savage Harbor); fourteen in Port Lajoie, four in Tracadie, three at the tip of the east and three to Malpec; 336 people in total.
In 1735 occurred the second census. We found this time, eighty-one family in the Island. This population was distributed as follows: At the Port Lajoie 114; in Havre St-Pierre 294; at home for the Eels 35; Tracadie 39; to Malpec 31, at the tip of the East 18; to Trois-Rivières (Georgetown ) 10, comprising of 541 persons.
During the period following the census the little colony had a slow but steady progress, thanks to years of peace enjoyed by the whole country until 1744. New kernels parishes were formed on various points: in the south, Pointe Prime, and Bédec; to the east to the river of Fortune, at the center along the river north-east, North and the West.
We have already learned that peace between the English and the French lasted until 1744. That year, the war again. Louisbourg, the fortified castle of the French in Cape Breton, passed into the hands of enemies. Immediately after the capture of Louisbourg, Peperell, the English, detached a body of four hundred men to capture the Ile St-Jean. Their first landing was made to Three Rivers, where all the buildings were delivered to the flames, while residents took refuge in the woods. The British then attacked Port Lajoie. Commander Duvivier had fifteen men at his disposal could not think of the resistance and fled into the woods. The English at Port Lajoie exerted the same devastation as Trois-Rivières. Then they retreated and during the rest of the war, the French of Ile were no longer worried. This war, however, much slower colonization in the Island, and very little progress was made over several years. Peace was restored in 1748 by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. By this treaty, France recovered the Cape Breton and Ile St-Jean, while England retained the Nova Scotia.
The year 1755 saw the "great disruption" in Acadia. During the five or six years, a lot of people french schools in Acadia, weary of mistreatment and persecution of English, had escaped, despite all the precautions of them, and came to join the French from the Ile St-Jean. But it was especially painful after this dispersion that the Acadians arrived in large numbers in the Island.
These poor expatriates arriving without food and clothes. Friends of the Ile St-Jean did all that Christian charity could do to alleviate the ills of their cousins in Acadia. The sad history of these years is still much to tell. Include only one page of the learned Senator Pascal Poirier: For the deportees, it was agony without truce or respite; agony of men reduced to begging and forced to endure without opening the mouth, for them and their families, affronts the contempt, kidnapping, all insults, all the injustices, all infamies; agony of women to thank you for accused teachers to religious fanaticism against everything that was known as Catholic and french; agony of children that we pulled the arms of their parents to distribute; agony of the soul of the fathers and mothers when they saw the same children become the English Protestants. All had abandoned the ground and cursed the sky remained deaf to their moans. It was a pain for people !.... All that said the miseries and sufferings of the Acadians on the day of "great inconvenience, all that tradition has reported what Longfellow, poet devin, drew from plaintive and desperate notes on his lute immortal does not equal the dismal reality. This tragedy can not be written with tears "
Already in 1753, the current of immigration which is still headed toward the island had so greatly altered the status of parishes that was deemed necessary to a new census which was the result of a population of 2663 souls, distributed as follows; Pinette, 84, Great Penalty (or Prime Pointe) 106; The Boulotière (or Orwell Bay) 66, Grand Anse (or Orwell Cove) 108; Marais 127; Ruisseau à Lafrance 66; County Anse St. Pierre 27; Port Lajoie 71; Anse du Nord-Ouest 98, North River 48, River North 728 East, Havre St-Pierre 73; Les Etangs 55; Havre aux Sauvages 87; Tracadie 78; Etangs des Berges 20; Malpec 259; Bedeque 101; River Traverse 45; River Blonds (or Tryon) 60; River Toads 10; Pointe de l'Est 33; Etang du Cap 4; River Fortune 67; Total 2663.
According to this table, we see that the French were able to choose the best places of the island to settle. Here, life was hard and laborious especially among new residents. But the mass of families, who were both kind of existence, were contented with their lot. Satisfied to have managed to avert the misery of their homes and being established on land of fertility known, they were considering the future with confidence. There was really miserable that families who are pursued to their departure from Nova Scotia by the British patrols that roamed the peninsula and the Straits, could not take with them neither effects nor provisions. But in general, poverty is restricted to these newcomers. One can imagine from the few glimpses we have, what should be the face of the parishes of our small island at the time. Include a page of Abbé Casgrain: "The patriarchal lives of these small companies, forming a world apart, sequestered from the rest of men, their habits of a pastoral simplicity ancient occupations uniform each of the families attached to land and livestock herds, all of which was the faithful reproduction of what happened around the Minas Basin and Port Royal. These parishes were, moreover, that the duplication of those of Acadia; buildings were the same houses one floor down and drilled a small number of windows with steep roofs so adapted to the climate, the church's wooden structure, adorned with their little bells, and later, cemeteries recognizable by the large cross that dominated the enclosure, similar to parsonages houses of the inhabitants. On Sundays and holidays, crowds flocked to the rustic shrines. The monotony of life was also interrupted by a few celebration, as at a wedding, for example, or visiting relatives or friends from a nearby parish or continent. Evenings at the home were moving, sometimes numerous and noisy, especially when we had the good fortune to have a fiddler to accompany the dances.
In a word, it was the rustic tables that inspired "The Evangeline" by Longfellow, whose charm is all the more exquisite and penetrating, it is an expression of historical truth. Here, as in Grand'Prée was: "The thatch-roofed village, the home of Acadian farmers," Men whose lives glided on like rivers that water the wood lands,
"Darkened by shadows of earth, but reflecting the image of heaven."
After the dispersal of 1755, those of the Acadians from Nova Scotia who had managed to escape and settle in our little island, they think that would be safe from attack, and once again they s'armèrent courage and prepared residences where they hoped to spend the rest of their lives and leave their son in a prosperous state. But the work of the tyranny of English was not yet complete. In 1758, the town of Louisbourg, the fortified castle of the French in America, was taken. From there, a squadron was sent to the Ile St-Jean with orders to deport all the inhabitants and burn all their possessions. This cruel order was executed in all its details. For a time people believed they were dealing with Christians, to civilized people. The population, as we have had increased to a large number of fugitives from Acadia in the wake of the "great disruption", was now about 5000 souls. She saw, from the fall of Louisbourg, the horrible fate that was reserved, but she persisted in believing there is not and can not be done at the idea that it would again be torn land that had cleared and were about to provide him with the ease and happiness. It seemed incredible that his enemies had the courage to renew the scenes of Acadia. Alas! the poor would not be long before you see this hope vanish.
The key people of each parish gathered and drew a query in which they begged the French commander to allow them to remain on their land. It was replied that the orders of Her Britannic Majesty should be executed, but, however, allowed the abbot Cassiet, pastor of St. Louis, and the abbot Biscaretti, pastor of St. Peter, who were the holders of this request to go back to the commander in chief, at Louisbourg. Needless approach! General Amherst and Admiral Boscowen remained inflexible, inspired, no doubt, by Lawrence, the fierce governor of Nova Scotia, the same who, three years earlier, had removed the people of Acadia and burned their homes . The fields covered at the time of the summer, beautiful harvest would be destroyed, animals killed or abducted, houses delivered to the flames. A crowd of Acadians witnesses and victims of this show three years ago went to see it renewed before their eyes.
The Abbé Casgrain in "A Second Acadie" has a wonderful page describing what had happened the last days before the departure. He writes:
"The weeks passed since the day when all hope to stay in the island was lost until the dissolution of the parishes by the departure of the priests had to be marked by incidents of profound interest which will never be known because none of those who were witnesses or perpetrators, have left the story. But just think about the plight qu'avaient before the eyes of the unfortunate who were driven from their homes and expropriated their property to get a sense of desolation. That represented only heartbreaking scenes that are renewed in every house at the time of departure of families, the primers of this departure, the harvest dropped or picked up by others abandoned cattle in the fields. But above all, that is transported in the church, last Sunday we had to make, adieux priests to their parishioners, last heard Mass in the midst of tears and torrents of tears the supreme moment to call out of the church to go over there and kiss the hands tightness before separating. Finally, the day of departure comes, the few objects that could take , loaded on cars, that figure is the reduction in the dark despair of men, crying, the screams of women and children, clearing the last time the threshold of homes, those homes where they had lived, where they hoped to die. Whether then follow the paths of the island, some coming from Malpec, St-Pierre-du-Nord, St. Louis, the other of the Prime Pointe of Bedeque, all converging towards the Port Lajoie which should be embarkations. " The insufficient number of ships delayed the start of many to fall freeze, then so dangerous to shipping in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which explains the disappearance of many exiles. It seems that the latest deportees could not leave the island until the spring of next year.
Wolfe, the hero of the Plains of Abraham, who had been commissioned by Lord Amherst of part of this dirty work, no secret to it, his feelings about such acts of brigandage. He said: "Your orders were executed, 30 September 1758. We did a lot of evil and terror spread of weapons of Her Britannic Majesty throughout the Gulf, but we did not add to their glory."
From the autumn of 1758, what was the fate of four to five miles of the proscribed Ile St-Jean, whose purpose, according to the promise of English commanders, was to be France? How many succeeded? We do not know. There is, on the result of this ban, only a few writings and rare traditions. What is certain is that, a few months after the capture of Louisbourg, the five parishes of the beautiful Port Lajoie, Pointe Prime, St-Louis du Nord-Est, St-Pierre du Nord and Malpec, each filled with churches and presbyteries, surrounded by villages and vast fields of culture, which arose here and there, the homes of people with their addictions, houses nine to ten cattle, sheep, pigs, horses and farm animals court of all these riches, there remained nothing, absolutely nothing, iron and the flame had eaten everything, Ile St-Jean had returned empty as the days of Champlain and Cartier.
There were certainly some families, especially in the parish of Malpec, who escaped and took refuge in the woods. After they learned of the capitulation of Quebec in 1759, most went to the English s and submitted. Some expatriate families, especially former residents of the island that had more profound ties, soon to venture and return. Other s'enhardirent to follow, and we saw groups of these hapless wandering the devastated areas, which were once their homes, their villages, their churches. It is useless to try to repeat what they tightness heart parcoururent these dreary solitudes they had seen once so lively. Had become the majority of those they had known? Alas! Disappeared for ever, and one died of misery, the other unknown victims of disasters, the survivors scattered on beaches so remote that life would be passed before we had heard about them!
An official census taken as of 1764, six years after the dispersion, taken by order of Governor Wilmot of Nova Scotia, could not find that 300 Acadians in Ile St Jean. Captain Holland, Surveyor of the King, who has divided the island into counties and lots, and had to visit all parts of the country, found that only 30 families in 1765. It was all that remained of the 5,000 Acadians who lived there seven years ago. The Acadians were under the supervision of an officer of the governor with the last épiait mistrust. You can have an idea of the hardships brought against them by the fact that there were few families who came to join them, so that thirty years later, in 1797, the census conducted by the English showed that their number had not increased.
"What it took patience, tenacity, energy and perseverance to the deprivation lasser the ill-will of their oppressors, overcome obstacles always reviving, rooted to the ground and pass on to their children, heritage of faith and honor they received from their fathers, no one will ever know. God has blessed and multiplied as children of Abraham, they became the ancestors of the many people who race acadienne aujourd ' Today the Prince Edward Island. " We, the descendants of these confessors of the faith, train has a population of 13,000 souls, grouped in various parishes of the island, whose main features are: - Rustico, Tignish, Egmont Bay, Palmer Road, Bloomfield , Mont-Carmel and Miscouche.
After their return from exile, the few families who managed to settle in the Ile St-Jean, had to start all over again. The beautiful land that their fathers had cleared were placed in the hands of English and we do not permit them to settle in their former villages. Thus they found themselves forced to look elsewhere for a place to rebuild their lives difficult and tough for pioneers. Yes, everything was over, and the number of the difficulties! Previously, under the french, settlers were free, they went where they wanted, choosing the most beautiful sites, the best land, at their discretion, where they saw fit. Now all this is changed. This handful of people is harmless hunted as wild beasts, for many years, they took refuge in the woods, and live on fruit and roots, with the proceeds of hunting. They almost dare not get out of their retirement. They are considered as foreigners who have no rights in their own country. They lack everything, clothes, food and home. On the other hand, English settlers began to arrive in large enough numbers, and the poor Acadians see their beautiful old villages occupied by them coming. Every encouragement is given to them: land, seed, supplies, while our poor ancestors can not even ensure a small plot of land to establish their families, both the English mind is suspicious and mounted against them. We never understand what it takes courage, patience, perseverance to continue the fight in such conditions? And if it had lasted only a short time only, but this has lasted for several generations, what am I saying? is this persecution, contempt, scorn of the Acadians did not practice even today in several parts of this province? Do we not feel that we have not quite seen the end? However, yes, to their great honor, our valiant forefathers did not discourage left, and as we can see today, their tenacity and their efforts were not in vain. For many years, however, our ancestors were foreigners, islands in the country they were first discovered, along with their sweat and their tears.
The first permanent settlements after dispersion, were trained by a few families Rustico, in 1761, and Malpec at about the same time. The establishment of Rustico continued to progress slowly without too much embarrassment on the part of English, but it was not so Malpec. The harassment and persecution finally here make this place untenable for Acadians and the founding of the parish of Mount Caramel, St-Jacques, Miscouche Cascumpeque and Tignish, at the beginning of last century was the result. And after all, who would dare say that these persecutions and miseries were not for the greater good of the Acadians? If the English, their neighbors, were treated as brothers and friends, maybe they would fade from the race Anglo-Saxon and Protestant, and we would not today in the Ile St-Jean, 13,000 Acadians french and Catholics. Heureuses miseries! Heureuses difficulties! Heureuses tests of our fathers! Are we sometimes tempted to shout. Without you, would we be today what we are? If instead you meet along the way, our fathers had found everywhere a warm welcome and an ideal fraternity, how would they behave? But you were there, sentinels placed by God himself. In your contact, our fathers, and basically Catholic Acadians-french, understood the importance of grouping. They regretted their fields, their forests, their villages, their steeples. They were terrified of the danger that ran their faith, their language and traditions in which they wanted to remain steadfastly committed. Abused, harassed and persecuted in many ways, they realized they could not isolate themselves more if they wanted to remain faithful to their glorious past and their religion.
Their attachment to ancestral traditions, their ardent love for the French language, their unswerving loyalty to the Catholic faith, yet developed in them the admirable spirit of patriotism and family informed that they had so deeply to heart. They did nothing! Well, again, they create it! They first group, then based in parishes, they ask priests to their bishop and they build new churches. Since their ancestors had kept at the same time their language, their customs and their religion by the church, why would they do so much themselves? Why such a plea can not be successful again?
Ever, we have enough appreciation for these brave the first time! Their strong resolution was, in fact, depend the future of our element. Today, we gather the fruits of their efforts, the future our children will collect, in turn, the benefits of our loyalty to the past, and our intelligent planning for the future.
Between 1761 and 1820, therefore, our ancestors founded the parishes that we have named. The beginnings were harsh and difficult. All lived in fishery products and thin crops of their few acres of land. Everything was lacking: seeds, tools, horses, cattle. Nevertheless, our fathers faced these challenges with a remarkable resolution. Nothing, indeed, do Rebuttable: the pain of separation, deprivation, abuse, exile does not discouraged. Full of health, determined at all costs, to become again a field, trusting in Divine Providence, they worked stoically without worrying about the next day. And why would they mind? They had no desire to live and strong arms to save their lives and those of the family? One could expect any such men. No generosity, no sacrifice, no devotion, can never be too strong for them. And, as we have seen since, in time and circumstances of our lives acadienne.
As the years succeeding years, the future was less difficult and more serene. Other nationalities also becoming less fanatical and more conciliatory, with their more immediate contact with our ancestors. These increased in number and their material was becoming more and more. They did not even representatives of the clergy, in the professions or in trade, but it comes with time.
In 1828, the first Acadian priest, a native of the island up to the altar, in the person of Father Sylvain-E. Poirier. From that date, the Acadians of the island, felt, as it were, baptized again. Now, one of their amount, each day at the altar, to offer the Holy Sacrifice for the Acadian people, it was a bright hope for our fathers.
What was especially lacking among our ancestors, was education, and ways to get it. The terrible years of disturbance had removed almost all traces of education among us. This was probably the greatest misery of our fathers. Because they had little or no education, they saw the path of all the lucrative jobs and closed all the professions for their children. From this, to believe that these jobs and these professions were only for others, there was only one step to take, and we find this idea still quite widespread among our people. Until 1870, there was throughout the island as 4 or 5 Acadian teachers, and yet their instructions left much to be desired.
In 1854 was elected the first representative acadien to the provincial legislature in the person of Hon. Stanislas Poirier. So it was a point gained for our Acadians. Later, Hon. Mr. Poirier had the honor of representing the riding of Prince in the House of Commons in Ottawa for several years. The Hon. Stanislas Poirier run for its voters in 28 provincial and federal elections and was defeated only once.
The year 1867 saw the election of a second representative to the Acadian Provincial Legislature, the Hon. Joseph-Octave Arsenault. Mr. Arsenault continued to represent his district in the Legislature until 1896, when he was appointed Senator to represent the riding of Prince in Ottawa.
The year 1917 saw his son, the Hon. E. Aubin Arsenault, reaching the post of Prime Minister of this Province, a position he held with honor for him and the Acadians. Four years later, Mr. Arsenault was appointed Judge of the Supreme Court, a position he filled with honor and dignity. In the field of public affairs, we have come a long way since the dark days when he was not even allowed an Acadian ensure possession of one acre of land.
In the field of education, significant progress has been made. There are now about forty-five school districts in the French Island. Many of these schools include two or three departments. This brings to about sixty the number of departments french. But, against, we have only four teachers and teachers Acadian. This is a shortcoming that we try to fill the last few, without much success. One might add that at present almost all our classes are led by young teachers with little experience. The results are below what we expect. We have no colleges or academies french, but we have convents under the direction of the Congregation of Notre Dame in the parishes of Tignish, Miscouche and Rustico.
Today Acadians of Ile is found with a single representative in the medical profession. Two doctors Acadian Island have settled abroad.
We also have two lawyers Acadian, one in Summerside and one in Charlottetown.
As clergy, we are pretty well represented. We have priests in parishes Acadian Acadian Rustico, Mont-Carmel, Egmont Bay, Bloomfield and Palmer Road. Another priest acadien is a professor at the College St. Dunstan and another priest of a parish in the English language. Acadian five other priests on the island are the Iles de la Madeleine. There are also several priests Acadian Island in the western provinces and the United States.
In commercial life, our share is not very large. We have a home business of some importance to Wellington, and others of lesser importance in different centers Acadian. But until now, very few Acadians are delivered to business and our share in this profession is not what it should be if we compare it to our people.
Among all employees of federal and provincial governments, the Acadians are almost unrepresented. Four or five positions of secondary importance are the only, or so, occupied by the Acadians.
Previously, we had a newspaper acadien Tignish. "L'Impartial" was founded in 1893 by the late Gilbert Buote. This newspaper did much to arouse the feeling acadien powerful and helped the French cause. It is unfortunate that this newspaper has been forced to abandon the game. Our Acadiens de l'Ile will not be armed as they should be, until we have a newspaper to promote french all our national and religious interests.
The company L'Assomption Mutual has branches in the parishes of Palmer Road, Bloomfield, Egmont Bay, Mount Caramel, Rustico, Charlottetown and Summerside. The Company Acadienne Tignish Mutual has branches in Miscouche and Hope river. In general, our Acadians do not yet understand the significance of our societies and therefore the number of members is not at all sufficient.
Now, having made the review of our current situation in all these reports, take a look around and try to understand what are the causes of our not so bright in these circumstances. And here we will not talk of the causes that we must go in our past history, causes, perhaps, explain our position today to some extent. We refer especially immediate causes and consider if there is no need to greatly improve our positions with the means and resources we have at our disposal.
First of all, it seems that we all agree to say that lack of education entering to much. If we had to work twenty years ago and had been investigating several of our young men for better jobs and professions, we would not have to regret our little bright in this respect. We can not excuse by saying that we could not afford it. If you look around you, you'll find most of the Acadians who have brought honor to us in the clergy and the professions are the children of poor farmers enough. However, they have succeeded. So that excuse is worthless. It seems that when the firm resolve to do something, usually means they are not failing to accomplish it. Therefore, it seems, because of lack of will, ambition and national pride on the part of us that we languissons in the situation somewhat brighter today.
It is accepted that we have the means and skills to succeed. Will we have to say that our Acadians of today and tomorrow will be charged, and with this evidence, indifference and lack of will with respect to what should be their most pressing concern?
Consider, for example, what we do for our youth today acadienne? How many were there at the Prince of Wales College preparing to become teachers or teachers in our schools at that time the teacher shortage is felt as fit? For the term 1920-1921, there were only two and four Acadian Acadians. In our population, we should be at least forty. So when we pitiful figure, and the other races know very well.
Perhaps you think that we have several young men at St. Dunstan's College. If so, think again. Of the 241 students at St. Dunstan's College, last year there were only fourteen Acadians. Yet, the Acadians are more than a third of the population of this diocese.
What do we become if we allow and perpetuate this situation? When all the other races are so hard to educate their children well, what chances of success are waiting for our Acadians uneducated, when they will have to deal with these people who are well equipped and well trained? As always, we will see ours in the background, and we still hear people complain that other races do not do justice, that our just claims are denied. How can we expect to grow and to spread our influence, if we do not prepare? It is impossible to believe, to be lulled by such illusions.
Let us look now on the organization of forces Acadiennes. You understand that to succeed, these days, each class must be organized. Among our people, there is still a big gap here. It is true that we have our beautiful Assumption Mutual Society which has done and will continue to do much good. But what encouragement she receives in this province? The fact that our seven major Acadian parishes do about 300 members at the company said enough in this respect.
Acadiens de l'Ile St-Jean, do you believe that this order of things should continue? Is this the way that we will win our rights and seek justice? When we see our neighbors join together in companies of all kinds to fight us and keep us at the bottom, why not also join us and oppose not only the force of law and justice, but also that of the union and number?
A nation consists of three major classes: farmers and artisans, traders and industrialists, members of the professions and individual leaders.
We need farmers and artisans, but the great mass of people and we raise in our primary schools.
We need traders and industrialists, less numerous than the previous class, it is no less necessary.
But rather we need today in french we Acadians of Prince Edward Island, educated men, even highly educated, men who put their nationality over the gold and glory, men that can fight in parliament, arguing in court, lead the people, guide its efforts, her energy group, and men, in a word, which is what the brain is the body.
And when these men take us? Where do we train? It is precisely to solve this problem recently, it was founded the Société St-Thomas d'Aquin. This company was born in Bloomfield, during a session of the Congress of Teachers of Island Acadians, aims to raise money to educate deserving students in our Acadian french colleges. Acadian clergy of the Island is at the head of the new company and their efforts are supported by all the secular leaders. Through the efforts of the company, which is still in its infancy, we now have four young Acadians attending the St. Joseph College, another College St. Dunstan, while Mr. Buote of Tignish pursues his theology courses in Quebec. If our friends and compatriots to support the efforts of this society, undoubtedly, their dream to bring the Acadians of the island on an equal footing with other nationalities, will soon be realized. The work of the St-Thomas D'Aquin grow as the funds in its fund increase. With the moral support and financial assistance to all our friends, we soon expect to see several priests, doctors, lawyers and other professionals out Acadian Colleges and Universities and walk to the defense of our religion, our race and our rights . This company will contribute greatly to bringing the date of the full rehabilitation of the small group acadien de l'Ile St-Jean.
If we could ensure that every family acadienne de l'Ile s'abonnât our national newspaper "L'Evangeline," our people would soon be aware of his situation.
If all our families once acadiennes could fully understand the need for good education for our youth national future is assured.
If our teachers and teachers acadiens were once truly believe that their efforts and dedication in our small schools depends in large part the future of our people, our progress would be visible every day.
If all we knew our great and glorious history and everything that surrounds it, as we should, we would not be so eager to imitate and to attend other nationalities.
And finally, if we add to the Acadian cause all the support it deserves, we must develop in ourselves and our children, worship and love of the French language. A large French-Canadian says: "Let us with a jealous care to all that is to maintain our own national language, at home, at school, in the worldly relations in private life. And above all, speak our language with love, with respect, with glory. Let the good. Let us be the defenders of the French language, not only against others but against ourselves. We must never forget that the preservation of language, the culture of language, the struggle for language is the struggle for national existence. If we let weaken ourselves in the language of worship and for public and private, we sapone at its base the whole work of civilization French high by more than three centuries of effort and sacrifice.
Burn that thought in our hearts, always have it in mind, inculcate it to our children from the tenderest age, spread it all around us and is the most pressing ministry time.
Acadians on Prince Edward Island
First section 1534-1758
Age of Discovery
First claimants on Ile Saint-Jean
Birth of a colony
War of Austrian Succession 1744-1748
Physionomy of establishments
The beginning of misfortunes
Censuses in 1752 and 1753
Organization of Parishes
Second section 1758-1927
La Marseillaise Acadienne
The Arrival of Father Angus-Bernard MacEachern
The Arrival of French Priests
The Visit of Mgr Denaut
The Visit of Mgr Joseph-Octave Plessis
Faather Jean-Louis Beaubien and the Acadian Mission
First Acadian Priest
Population. - Agriculture
Commerce and industry
Professions, Officials, Clergy
National Societies and Newspapers
The Société Saint-Thomas D'Aquin
History of the parishes
Michel Haché-Gallant, in 1720, left the schooner in Acadia to settle in french territory. In the early years of the colony, it provided the food and transport passengers between what is now Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island. Children of Michel were married in the community and formed the nucleus of the Acadian population of the region. The origins of many of Gallant of the island date back to pioneer.
Articles de journaux
During the summer of 1720, three tall ships cast anchor near here. Soon, the dense forests that then covered the park site resonated under the blows of the ax and screaming husky accompanying the hard work of men. On this ground was Port-la-Joye, erected in 1720 to protect agricultural interests and french fishing at Isle St. Jean.
The previous year, the Prince Edward Island (then the Isle Saint-Jean) was transferred to a favorite of the king, the Count of Saint-Pierre. Hoping to establish a thriving fishing industry, it will form a company that is working since installing its headquarters and a base called Port La Joye. The company attracted settlers and was the beginning of the first European settlement on the island. Troops from Louisbourg were in garrison in this outpost. The morale of these troops was the lowest because they were not often observed and also because the barracks did not offer much protection against the rigors of winter, especially when the wind, rain and snow infiltrated between the poles of the walls and roof of rotten planks.
The outpost was destroyed by troops from New England in 1745 and rebuilt four years later, fell back for good to the British in 1758.
After taking the Acadie by the British, the French wanted the Acadians to move them on land still belonging to France. Often challenging opposition, the French resorted to strong-arm tactics. Many Acadians arrived in the Isle Saint-Jean destitute. Abbé Girard, priest of a parish of the island, described the status of Acadian refugees in 1753, as follows:
"Our refugees in general do not lose hope and courage in working to live, but the nudity is almost universal and supreme degree, afflicts much and I can assure you that many, this winter will be out of work . They lack the tools they may take cover from the harshness of cold, night and day. Most of the children nodes if they can not hide and when I go into the houses they are all in ashes against the fire: they hide and run away without shoes, without bottom, without shirts, etc.. All are not reduced to this extremity, but nearly all are in need ... "
In 1755, the British began expelling the other Acadians. They came many settle on the island St. John, who soon became overcrowded and suffered from famine
Colony of Misery
The French have never had great success with their island colony of Saint-Jean. The authorities not only gave him a sustained interest and the settlement was devastated by the war.
"A long cry of hunger." It was in these terms was described as the state of agriculture under the French. Despite some good seasons and prosperous settlers, there were periodic droughts and crops were often destroyed by rust, wheat or by plagues of locusts or mice. Such natural disasters is hardly conducive to the settlement.
When the colonists finally arrived, it was a kind of burst that suffering and chaos engendered. During the last decade of the french, from 1748 to 1758, the population increased from 650 to nearly 5,000 due to the influx of Acadian refugees who poured into the island.
Port LaJoye in 1752
In 1752, Sieur de la Rocque, Surveyor of Louisbourg, made an excellent survey of the island, still preserved in Paris, provides fascinating details on many settlers and settlements from the Ile Saint-Jean.
Port La Joye nine families established along the creek which runs along the north boundary of this park.
They had in total 39 people, including 21 who were there for at most three years. Most adults were in Acadia, but many of them were from elsewhere in Quebec, France, Switzerland and even Ireland.
Similarly, men engaged in various trades. There was a tailor, a sugar refiner, a soldier, a merchant and a browser. Four families were propriétaiers of their land, three leased and two had none at all. The community has 2 horses, 4 cows, 13 pigs, 2 sheep, 7 geese and 106 chickens.
The more affluent the colon appears to have been Louis Jonisseau, 30, merchant of Quebec, married with a daughter. Not only was he able to buy his land, but it also had a horse, two cows, a pig and 30 chickens.
Conquest and Explusion
The French plans for Ile Saint-Jean ended in August 1758. Two years earlier, France and England were again entered into war, so that Louisbourg was again the target of the British. Siege, it surrendered on 26 July 1758.
L'île Saint-Jean was included reporting on 17 August, four British warships carrying 500 men under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Rollo came to Port La Joye. Any attempt at resistance was futile. The only company of troops of the Navy led Rousseau Villejoin of surrender.
The British were determined to resolve any problems of allegiance in french evicting settlers. Their position on this issue was starkly exposed by Admiral Boscawen, Commander of the British fleet. "We must rid the Sovereign Dominion of all this vermin French.
The settlers who had escaped, were assembled and shipped to France. Many people died en route. It remained only a handful of inhabitants in a remote parish.
Shortly after the abandonment of Fort Amherst, the land was purchased by Governor Walter Patterson. Removed from his post in 1787, it was further undermined by the fraudulent activities of his brother, John. A collector of customs Charlottetown relates the following incident which took place on the ground of the fort in 1788:
"Having been informed that a major smuggling operation was about ... I got a detachment of soldiers ... with whom I went to the farm ... where I took some of the articles of contraband, but the domestic ... the former Lieutenant Governor Patterson, assisted by eight to nine other people ... have succeeded after a corporal to become master of the house ... which, taken prisoner, we were detained for several hours.
Shortly after I was informed that the firm had received goods from other cargo as well ... I got another detachment of armed men with whom I went to the farm again ... where I took the goods ... We have transported to the city and it has brought before the court of admiralty, for entering a trial against the goods and the schooner. "
Port LaJoye, main town
In the spring of 1726, Captain Jacques De Pensens took the wooden buildings of Port La Joye, abandoned following the bankruptcy of the company of the Count of Saint-Pierre. He was sent with half a company of soldiers to reaffirm the sovereignty of the Crown on the island and to urge settlers to remain there.
Seeing his condition as an exile, Pensens was not comforted by the constant wrangling of settlers or by the state of buildings "Left entirely out of service. The soldiers and I are all at risk when we see crushed by buildings where we are housed. "
Port La Joye is still the capital of the island Saint-Jean during French control. It is here that lived Commander in charge of defense and the Sub-delegate in charge of justice and civil administration.
Despite numerous requests for funds sent to the Minister of Marine, Port La Joye left without defenses. The island was very vulnerable. "The smaller privateer can descend without objection, burn and destroy the institution that promise a lot." There was no protection for a number of guns.
A Pioneer Family in 1752
According to the census of 1752, some families fared quite well. A proof, the family Haché Gallant, installed nearby:
"François Haché Gallant, a resident farmer, born in Acadie, aged 45 years and there are 28 it is in the country, married to Anne Boudrot, native to Acadia, aged 33 years. They have 7 boys and a girl ... They have cattle: 4 oxen, 4 cows, 3 heifers, 2 bulls, 4 sows, pigs 2, 3 gelinnes and a wheat mill consisting of a brown moulange ...
The land on which they are located ... (measure) 4 arpents front by 40 deep ... semmi they bled ten bushels of wheat, 2 peas, and for Guéret semmi 16 ... "
The Survival of the Acadian Community
Deportation of the Acadians by the British in 1758 destroyed the French colony of Île Saint-Jean. A few hundred settlers, however, managed to flee. It is through them that the Acadian community has survived in the Prince Edward Island. Only the former Acadian family names, some french place names and the documents prepared by the colonial authorities and clerics still recall the origins of European settlers in Prince Edward Island.
One Island - A Great Help
The following excerpt from Submission to the King by his Council of State illustrates the hopes that he founded in 1730 on the Île Saint-Jean.
"The Island of Saint John ... would be of great benefit to the Isle Royalle by the food that we could live in the UK and through the woods and it could provide the Pesche of Cod which 'it would if it was inhabited, the inhabitants of Acadia That could come in Isle Saint-Jean and send their children. What this Isle are necessary for the maintenance of Isle Royale, and conservation of Canada. "
In 1764, Captain Samuel Holland, performing a survey of the new British island, described as follows Lot french settlers who had escaped deportation:
"There are about thirty French-Acadian families on the island who are called prisoners ... They are extremely poor ... It is forbidden for people of this place (St. Peters) and those from the Bay of Fortune to sell whatever either, not even a cabbage from their garden. I asked the reason for the officer who told me they were all prisoners of war and all their cattle belonged to him ... "
After 1767, the french settlers could become citizens and landowners, provided they pledge allegiance to the British crown. Their many descendants still inhabit the island.
Life at Fort Amherst
It is often claimed that British soldiers had managed to repel a French attack shortly after the construction of the fort. Unfortunately, there is no official documents on this fight. Life in the fort was probably limited to routine exercises and patrols. Indeed, the French were planning an invasion from other U.S. bases, but this was never a draft.
If that was peaceful, life at the fort lacked comfort. The buildings, erected in haste, quickly fell into disrepair. The accommodations were cramped and cold. However, a small glass of rum per day hunted the chills of winter and people could supplement their rations of bread, salted meat and fish by hunting or picking berries. New troops were arriving each year to meet the garrison.
In 1763, peace was signed and we learned that the island remains in the hands of England. The following year, soldiers from Fort Amherst helped the performance of a land survey of the Island and worked in 1764, construction of the new capital, Charlottetown.
The War Ravages Ile St. Jean
In 1744, another war broke out between France and England. In North America, troops from New England, supported by the British Navy besieged the new French fortress of Louisbourg, which was captured in June 1745.
The British then turned to the Île Saint-Jean, "after the Cape Breton is the same place where the enemy is most likely to come together ... and Port could become powerful ..."
Sent on an expedition that crashed on the island, capturing and burning Port La Joye and forcing the settlers to take refuge within the forest. After a brief but fierce resistance, the small group of soldiers left the island french for Quebec.
The British had originally planned to return to France all the french settlers of the island, but the missing vessels, one concludes with the settlers a treaty of neutrality which gave them "The freedom to remain in possession of their land until that His Majesty makes known his pleasure ... "
Fortunately for the settlers, the island became French possession at the end of the war in 1748.
The French and the Micmacs
One of the great events of Port La Joye was the annual meeting of the Micmac of the mainland and the island came to renew their alliance with the French.
First inhabitants of this part of Canada and especially the nomadic Indians occupied an area ranging from Cape Breton to Gaspé including Prince Edward Island, almost all of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and parts of New England.
Under the influence of French, they became more sedentary and, during the french, they had a permanent village Malpec on the northwest coast of the island. The Mi'kmaq people of the island was about 500 souls.
The annual meeting was marked by speeches, parties and a formal exchange of gifts sealing the alliance, was the occasion of a great animation. Things are not always n'allèrent according to the wishes of the French. In 1738, the Micmacs threatened to join the English if the French did not do more than "present."
Among those present of importance, were the guns and powder. Thus armed, Micmacs terror became colonies of New England until the end of the french, they played a large role in the plans of the French military.
Histoire de l'Acadie de l'Île-du-Prince-Edouard
Printing of Evangeline, 1927
4th edition, Irwin Printing, Charlottetown, PEI 1979
Acadian Museum Archives
Miscouche, Prince Edward Island
Archives of the Carrefour de l'Isle-Saint-Jean
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island
La Marseillaise acadienne
Adaptation of Abbé A. T. Bourque
A Second Acadia
Abbé Henri-Raymond Casgrain
Demers, Quebec 1898
Les Acadiens de l'Isle Saint-Jean
Conference J-Henri Blanchard, 1921
Article by Francis Blanchard
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, 1978
Google Map - Prince Edward Island