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The Ships of the Acadian Expulsion
by Dr. Don Landry
 
A Compilation Of Information On The Eighteenth Century Transport Vessels, Used By The British To Transport The Acadians, (Neutral French), During The Acadian Expulsion Of 1755

Rights reserved by: DONALD J. LANDRY, D.D.S., 6512 Schouest Street, Metairie, Louisiana 70003    

INTRODUCTION

        In researching my family history and genealogy, I became curious about the transport vessel that was used to transport my ancestors from Pisiquid, Nova Scotia (Acadia) to Maryland on October 28, 1755. So, I attempted to gather as much information as I could on the ships of the expulsion.
        
WHAT WERE THE COLONIAL SAILING VESSELS LIKE?

        According to Howard I. Chapelle in "THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN SAILING SHIPS", the methods employed by the shipbuilding in the early days were crude. All of the planking was sawn by hand by two men, one in a pit and one straddling the log. The heavy timber was shaped and fitted by use of an adze, broadaxe and plane. Because of this crude and laborious process, the bulk of the colonial sailing vessels were small. 
        
CLASSIFICATION, TYPE, OR DESCRIPTION OF THE VESSELS USED.

        It is difficult to find detailed information on all of the types, or classification of ships used during the mid-eighteenth century. The general classifications of type and rig that were popular with the colonists are
easily listed, as they are often given in the records. But some allowances must be made for the ignorance of the recorder, for the listing of a single vessel as a "bark", a "ship" and a "brigantine" in a single paper is not at all uncommon. Generally speaking, there were seven classifications of vessels in the colonial records. Ships, Sloops, Pinks, Brigantines, Shallops, Ketches and Barks, and all of them are noted in these records up until 1717 when Schooners were added to the list as a seperate class. The types, or class, of the colonial vessels correspond in design and appearance with their counterparts in England. The largest classification of vessels in the lists are Sloops, from twenty five to seventy tons burden. The next in popularity were brigantines, from 30 to 150 tons. 
        The rigging of a brigantine at this time is open to argument, they were sometimes rigged as Brigges, and possibly as Schooners before a destinction was made for the Schooner's rigging. 
        Following are descriptions and illustrations of the different types of sailing vessels that made up the fleet, or convoy, of ships used for the Acadian expulsion of 1755: 
        BARK: Barks were square-sterned vessels, usually flush decked, and like the Pinks had no special rig. The name "Bark" was not applied to the rig, but to the hull type. The name was very loosely applied in colonial records, and is often used in place of ship or vessel. Most of the colonial Barks seem to have been Brigantines, although some were rigged as Ships or Ketches. 
        A bark was a three masted vessel square-rigged except for the mizzenmast, which is fore-and-aft rigged. This vessel was also called a Barque. (See pp 181, 267 and 273 - THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS - drawn by Gordon Grant - text by, Henry Brundage Culver Garden City Publishing Co, Inc. - 1924) also (Howard I. Chapelle in "THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN SAILING SHIPS")
        BRIGGE or BRIGANTINE: A brigge or brigantine was a two masted square-rigged vessel that had square sails on the foremast only, and fore-and-aft rigged on the mainmast. (See p. 229 and 239 - THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS - drawn by Gordon Grant - text by, Henry Brundage Culver Garden City Publishing Co, Inc. - 1924)
The Brig and Snow came into use in the early part of the eighteenth century. Both were two masted, and were square rigged on both masts. There were only minor differences in their rigging, and in time the word Snow went out of use.
        A brig carried a cross jack yard instead of a main yard, which differentiated it from the snow, which carried a square mainsail in addition to its fore and aft mainsail that was rigged on a try-sail mast. Brigs were fast and were a favorite of privateering and pirates.(Henry B. Culver - THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS
- Illustrations by Gordon Grant - Garden City Publishing - p. 229-30)
        CORVETTE: A corvette was a warship equipped with sails and a single tier of guns, and ranking next below a frigate. (See p. 249 - THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS - drawn by Gordon Grant - text by, Henry Brundage Culver Garden City Publishing Co, Inc. - 1924)
        FRIGATE: A frigate  was originally a light and swift vessel of the Mediterranean, propelled by both oars and sails. A frigate was also an old-style war vessel used from 1650 to 1840, a frigate was smaller than a ship of the line, but larger than a corvette. (See p. 173 and 225 - THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS - drawn by Gordon Grant - text by, Henry Brundage Culver Garden City Publishing Co, Inc. - 1924)
        Originally a frigate had a short deck, forward and aft, at about the same level, and a lower long deck amidship. Later they were constructed to have a continuous platform running from end to end of the ship without a break. This type of construction was called "frigate fashion". 
        A frigate was a term used to describe smaller types of warships that had from 24 to 50 cannons that were carried on these flush decks. They were designed for speed and were particularly efficient as commerce destroyers. (Henry B. Culver - THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS - Illustrations by Gordon Grant - Garden City Publishing - p. 173)
        GOELETTE: - It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between closely related types of vessels and perhaps no fine distinction can be made between the the two masted rig the French called a goelette and that which was commonly designated as a schooner. The word Goelette comes from the Breton word for sea gull (gwelon or goelan). (See p. 257 - THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS - drawn by Gordon Grant - text by, Henry Brundage Culver Garden City Publishing Co, Inc. - 1924)
        Emile Lauvriere, in his "LA TRAGEDIE D'UN PEUPLE" - Histoire du Peuple Acadien - des origines a nos jours - 1923- Editions - Bossard - 43 Rue Madame, 43 - Paris - Tome I - 12th edition Chapter XIV "LE 'GRAND DERANGEMENT'" pp 457-513, in referring to some of the vessels used in the expulsion, refers to the sloop Dove, as ôla goelette Doveö, schooner Racehorse as ôla goelette Race Horseö and and schooner Ranger as ôla goelette Rangerö. And, following a long list of other  vessels he refers to one as ôUne Goeletteö. I am not sure if he means that this vessel was named "une Goeletteö, or he is referring to an unknown schooner by the French name goelette, or an unknown sloop.
        MAN-O-WAR: Any naval vessel armed for active hostilities. (See p. 153 THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS - drawn by Gordon Grant - text by, Henry Brundage Culver Garden City Publishing Co, Inc. - 1924)
        SCHOONER: Schooners were small vessels that evolved in New England. Schooners were a constructed with a square stern and fitted with two masts bearing a sloop sail on each, a bowsprit and a jib. These sails were set fore and aft of the masts and parallel to the keel. In later years schooners were designed with as many as seven masts. The schooner was very economical to operate, requiring fewer men to her sail, than any other sailing vessel. Schooners were used in shallow waters and narrow harbors for coastal trade, but could also be used in the open sea. (See p. 253 - THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS - drawn by Gordon Grant - text by, Henry Brundage Culver Garden City Publishing Co, Inc. - 1924)
        SHIP:  Ships were full rigged sailing vessel with three or more masts, with square rigging on all three masts with a spanker on the mizzen as well. A full rigged ship was best for long voyages, where square sails could be set in the trade winds and left untouched for days. Except for the jibs and a little steering sail at the stern, called a spanker, all sails on a ship where square sails and were set afthwartship on three masts. Only a craft so rigged could be properly called a ship. (See p. 243 - THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS - drawn by Gordon Grant - text by, Henry Brundage Culver Garden City Publishing Co, Inc. - 1924)
        SLOOP: As noted above, according to Howard I. Chapelle in "THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN SAILING SHIPS", the majority of the colonial sailing vessels were small. And the largest proportion of vessels in the lists of colonial sailing vessels are sloops, from twenty five to seventy tons burden. 
        Sloop rigging during this time was fore-and-after; one mast, carrying a gaff mainsail, two to three headsails, and a square topsail and "course" (square lower sail). Below the main deck of the sloop were two short decks or "platforms", the forward for the accommodation of the galley fireplace, and in merchant vessels, the crew. Abaft this, in merchantmen, was the cargo hold, but in men-o-war this space had a portable deck for accomodation of the large crews that were required in that class of ship.         
        Aft was the "great cabbin" and after "platform" forming state-rooms or "bedplaces" for the officers. A large hatch was over the hold and a ladderway and sometimes a skylight was over the after platform, which completed the list of deck openings. 
        In the stern there was a short raised quarterdeck, formed by the roof of the "great cabbin." The entrance to the cabin was through a doorway in the bulkhead at the fore end of the quarterdeck, opening on the main deck, and covered by a domed hatch. The floor of the "great cabbin" was sunk below the level of the main deck so that the quarterdeck would not be excessively high. The sloop was steered by a long tiller on the quarterdeck.  And the quarter deck had open wooden rails. There was usually a figurehead at the stern or a simple carved billet 
        The illegal trade business required a sharp and fast vessel. The first mention of sharp and fast vessels appears to be in 1730s, and were probably sloops, but soon schooner rigging was adopted. 
        Colonial shipping vessels were usually small, although, we note that a lot of the transports used in the expulsion, including the sloops, were closer to 90 tons burden. 
        Naval records are vague at times as to ship descriptions. A Naval-Sloop could be a vessel of almost any rig, as long as it carried her guns on a single deck, or was commanded by an officer one grade below a Captain in rank. It seems that a Naval-Sloop is more a description of rank and battery, than of rig. 
        In old navies, a Sloop-of-War was a vessel rigged either as a ship, brig, or schooner, and mounting between 18 and 32 guns; later any war vessel larger than a gunboat and carrying guns on one deck only. There are no sloop classification in modern navies.  The escort ship Baltimore was designated as a Sloop/War vessel. 
        The Royal Navy's brigantine or snow "SWIFT" was called a "sloop" it measured 60 feet long by 19.2 feet in width, and was 90-1/2 tons. 
        In most accounts, sloops are described as a single masted fore-and-aft rigged sailing vessel, having a fixed bowsprit and carrying at least one jib: and is now used principally as a racing vessel.  
        There were a considerable number of sloops used as transport vessels during the expulsion. The Schooners and Sloops used in the expulsion ranged from a low of 69 tons to a high of 91 tons, and as mentioned above, the term sloop and schooner may have been used interchangebly when referring to the type of vessel used in transporting the Acadians. 
        Emile Lauvriere - in his publication "LA TRAGEDIE D'UN PEUPLE" - Histoire du Peuple Acadien - des origines a nos jours - 1923- Editions Bossard - 43 Rue Madame, 43 - Paris - Tome I - 12th edition Chapter XIV "LE 'GRAND DERANGEMENT'" pp 457-513 refers to a number of the two masted rigs that were commonly designated as schooners, by the French name "goelette", as well as a sloop as a ôgoeletteö.  
        The author has taken the liberty of using an illustration of a goelette and changed the rigging to reflect that of a Sloop.
        SNOW: A snow was a large two-masted square rigged vessel characterized by having a trysail mast close behind the mainmast. The Snow and the Brig had a common ancestor, and it was difficult to distinguish between the brigs and the snows. (See p. 235 - THE BOOK OF OLD SHIPS - drawn by Gordon Grant - text by, Henry Brundage Culver Garden City Publishing Co, Inc. - 1924) The Snow and the Brig came into use in the early part of the eighteenth century. Both were two masted, and were square rigged on both masts. There were only minor differences in their rigging, and in time the word Snow went out of use. 
        A shipping or marine ton is equilivant to 100 cubic feet and the gross tonnage of a vessel refers to the cubic capacity of a vessel, including that of the hull and superstructure, with the exception of certain spaces, such as the pilot house, galleys and companion ways. 
        The net tonnage is the space that remains after the cubic capacity of the engine rooms ballast tanks and crew's quarters are excluded from the gross tonnage, and could be used for either cargo or persons. ("THE YOUNG UNITED STATES" -1783-1830 by Edwin Tunis - "SHIPBUILDING" - pp. 81-87; 134-136)
        Therefore, it is fair to say that Lawrence's intention was to ship 2 people in a space measuring 100 cubic feet or a space actually measuring approximately 5ft.1 inch x 4 feet on the surface and 4feet x 11 inches high.
        Sailing orders were issued to the captains of each vessel by Lawrence on August 11, 1755.


THE TRANSPORT SHIPS OF THE EXPULSION

        It appears that the ships used for the expulsion of the Acadians from Nova Scotia (Acadia), were a variety of makeshift second hand cargo vessels, making up a fleet of about 24  sailing vessels.
        Governor Shirley and Colonel Lawrence had contracted, or chartered these vessels, by the month, for a flat fee per head, from Charles Apthorp and Thomas Hancock of the Boston Mercantile firm of Apthrop and Hancock. And, after they were outfitted and converted in Boston to hold 2 persons per ton (in some cases 300 to 500 persons), they were brought over from Boston to Nova Scotia. The transports were ready on the 11th of October. (Maryland Historical Magazine Vol III #1 March 1908 - The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland - Basil Sollers - p. 7) 
        The conversion of a schooner of 150 tons cargo, is described by William Faulkner Rushton in "THE CAJUNS - From Acadia to Louisiana" - Noonday Press - New York -  p. 51., as follows: 
        "Before leaving Boston the ships had been renovated by removing the balast stones and the bulk heads of the holds.  In the case of a ship designed to carry 150 tons of cargo, the hold that usually measured approximately 24 feet wide and 48 feet long was lengthened by approximately 12 feet, creating  a large area in the hold of the vessel measuring approximately 24 feet wide by 60 feet long. The removal of the floor timbers and the balast stones increased the heigth to approximately 15 feet high. This enlarged hold space was then divided into three levels of just at or slightly over 4 feet high without windows for light or ventilation. The holds were locked creating a prison with no windows for light or ventilation, no sanitary conditions and no heat, except that of the huddled bodies." 
        Since the ship was designed to hold 150 tons of cargo, and Lawrence had ordered his field commanders to load the ships at 2 persons per ton, 300 people, some times more, were crowded into this space for a voyage in rough seas for up to 3 months. 
        Given the existing measurements of the hold, only one half of the passengers would lie down shoulder to shoulder the rest would have to sit or stoop shoulder to shoulder, since a grown person could not stand erect in the hold of the ship, that had only just over 4 feet high ceilings.
        Most of the other deportation vessels had cargo holds were much smaller that the space on the schooner described above, yet they were filled with over 5,000 prisoners during the fall months of 1755. In each case, their rations consisted mainly of bread, water and flour and they lacked sufficient clothing for an Atlantic voyage in the middle of the winter, and since there were no sanitary facilities available, outbreaks of small pox occured.
        On  page 9, in  "Scattered To The Wind - Dispersal and Wanderings of the Acadians", Carl A. Brasseaux writes:  "Severe overcrowding into the dank, dark holds of small non-seaworthy British cargo ships, denied knowledge of their destinations, given substandard food and water, preventing them practicing any sort of personal hygiene, resulted in out breaks of small pox and other devastating diseases." 
        "The Acadian deportees were a miserable lot indeed. In fact the ships were so overcrowded the exiles could not even lie down. As the Acadians exiled to Pennsylvania recalled: "we were so crowded on the transport vessels, that we had not room even for all our bodies to lay down at once, and consequently were prevented from carrying with us proper necessities". (Carl A. Brasseaux - Scattered to the Wind" - Dispersal and Wanderings of the Acadians, 1755-1809 - p. 9) also (The British Empire Before The American Revolution, by Lawrence Henry Gipson - Vol. VI, p. 283, [quoting from a petition printed in full in T.C. Haliburton's "An Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia" 1, 183-95])
        The Acadians were kept below deck, in the hold, during the entire voyage and only six at a time were allowed to come on deck every hour and a half alternating. (Willam J. Faulkner Rushton - "The Cajuns - From Acadia to Louisiana" The Noonday Press, New York - p. 51) 
        These statements are amply supported by extant documentation revealing that most of the British transports carried approximately one-third more passengers than they were designed to hold, resulting in rapid depletion of the ships' stores. The detrimental effects of overcrowding and poor diet had devasting
effects upon the formerly robust health of the exiles. The general decline in the exiles' state of physical well-being was exacerbated by the detrimental effects of stress and sea sickness, produced by storms and heavy seas that plagued the voyage. It is thus hardly surprising that epedemics,(usually typhus and smallpox), broke out among the exiles either during the voyage, or upon their arrival at their destinations. (Carl A. Brasseaux - Scattered to the Wind" - Dispersal and Wanderings of the Acadians, 1755-1809 - p. 9)
        The crowding of more than their complement on board the transports was a double injury to the exiles. It made their situation less comfortable and more dangerous to health and at the same time prevented them from carrying with them as much of their household goods as they could have done. They were allowed to take their money and only such clothing and bedding, etc. as could be without overcrowding the vessels. 
        In order to hasten the task of deporting the Acadians, the ships were overloaded, and to make room for even more, the Acadians were forced to leave practically all of their goods on shore, where they were found still lying on the shore by the English settlers who came six years later.     
        This crowding was discussed by Captain Alexander Murray commander of Fort Edward in a letter to Col. Winslow, dated October 19, 1755, stating his need for additional transports. "My people are already and if you think I may venture to put the inhabitants on board Davis (captain of the ship Neptune), I will do it. Even then, with the three ships and this schooner, They will be stowed in bulk, but if I have no more vessels, I will put them all aboard, let the consequences be what it will". - (Maryland Historical Magazine Vol III #1 March 1908 The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland Basil Sollers - p. 7)
        However, it was reported that "The government of Nova Scotia had adopted a policy respecting the transportation of the people that, had it not been for the miscalculations and the failure of the contractors, would have made it unnecessary for Winslow, Murray and Handfield to overcrowd any of the ships as, with the winter approaching, they did in order to expedite the departure of the people". (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson  - footnote, p. 279) 
        By comparing the Acadians' experience aboard these ships to a seaman's life aboard a British ship, one can imagine the hardships the Acadians were made to endure aboard these British vessels.  An 18th century British warship, is described as having cramped quarters bad food and  hard, even during peace time. In war, especially during the American revolution, it was at times unbearable. And because of this, the British navy lost some 60,000 men by desertion and death between 1774 and 1780. 
        Because of corruption, the ships were not built as well as they should have, and repairs were neglected. Ship supplies were sold for politicians' profit, and even the normally sparse rations were frequently short or spoiled. 
        Prisoners of war who fell into the hands of the British were placed aboard prison ships. Suffocating in the heat of summer, freezing in winter, the hapless prisoners had only a small chance to survive the "nauseous and putrid atmosphere". Many soldiers preferred death to capture.
        On page 9 of Naomi E.S. Griffiths' - "THE ACADIAN DEPORTATION:  Deliberate Perfidy or Cruel Necessity", we find the following account of the deportation:
        "On the 29 Octr 1755 the Fleet saild from the Rendezvous in the Bason of Mines under the Convoy  of His Majestys Ship the Nightengale Captain Diggs - the Snow Halifax Captain Taggart - the armd schooner Warron Captain Adams - with the Transports as follows": 

---From Pissiquid - 

 Sloop Ranger            Capt Piercy   91 tons  182 Men (323 aboard)
 Sloop Dolphin           Capt Farnam   87 tons  174 Men (227 aboard)
 Schooner Neptune        Capt Davis    90 tons  180 Men
 Schooner Three Friends  Capt Carlile  69 tons  138 Men

--- From Mines & Canard - 

 Sloop Seaflower         Capt Donnell     81 tons      180 Men
 Sloop Hannah            Capt Adans       70 tons      140 Men
 Schooner Leopard        Capt Church      87 tons      174 Men
 Sloop - - - -           Capt Milbury     93 tons      186 Men
 Sloop ully & Sarah      Capt Haslum      70 tons      140 Men
 - Mary                  Capt Denny       90-1/2 tons  181 Men
 - Prosperous            Capt Bragdon     75 tons      150 Men
 - Endeavor              Capt Jn Stone    83 tons      166 Men
 - Industry              Capt Goodwin     86 tons      172 Men
 - - -                   Capt Puddington  80 tons      160 Men

        In an account of the embarkation, manuscripts show that the authorities considred the Acadians being "shipped" with no more concern than they would have in the shipping of cattle. The lack of, or disregard for the ships' manifests, shows that they didn't appear to be  concerned with names, only numbers.
        "(N.B.) I have made some blunder by the loss of the principal list of those who embarked - but the number of souls that embarked on board of these transports were 2921 - how many embarked afterwards I know not" - (ACADIA" - Edourd Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, pp. 120-121) - (Naomi E.S. Griffiths - "THE ACADIAN DEPORTATION: Deliberate Perfidy or Cruel Necessity" - p. 143 [quoting a manuscript account of Brown compiled in 1760's])
        Because of the lack of manifests, or passenger lists, there is no record of those Acadians who died at sea. Only, that they mysteriously disappeared from any record, or census following the expulsion.  
        The remainder of the neutrals remained until more transports arrived. Thirty days provisions were placed aboard each vessel consisting of 1 lb of beef; 5 lbs of flour and 2 lbs of bread per person, plus some cabbages, turnips, potatoes, apples, etc.
        The number of livestock left behind by the Acadians were: 43,500 horned cattle; 48,500 sheep; 23,500 pigs; 2,800 horses, and countless chickens, ducks, geese, etc. (ACADIA" - Edourd Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 125)
        According to Al Lafreniere, "those who were exiled from Chignecto (Fort Beausejour) were seperated from their families purposely. This was to punish the Acadians for participating in the battle with the English at Fort Beausejour. The other areas of Acadia did not experience a purposeful seperation of families, although some families were seperated during the expulsion.
        Following is a list of transports chartered from Apthorp and Hancock of Boston for 40 to 48 pounds per month and used to transport the Acadians out of Acadia in the fall of 1755. 
        The names and the description of the vessels were taken from: Abreviated copies of the accounts transmitted by Apthorp & Hancock of Boston, to Governor Lawrence, that can be found on pages 285-289 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869; An article on the ("ACADIAN
DEPORTATION SHIPS", by Alfred N. LaFreniere - (page 7-9 - Maryland Historical Magazine - Vol. III No. 1, March 1908; "The Acadians [French Neutrals], Transported to Maryland" - Basil Sollers); Canadian Archives, Report [1905], II. Apendix A, Part III, E, p. 81; Photo copy of an article that appeared in the Windsor, N.S. newspaper entitled "EXPULSION OF ACADIANS ORGANIZED AT WINDSOR"); Gregory A. Wood - THE FRENCH PRESENCE IN MARYLAND - 1524-1800 - p. 65-66) - (Nova Scotia Doc., I, 42-4; and, Emile Lauvriere - "LA TRAGEDIE D'UN PEUPLE" - Histoire du Peuple Acadien - des origines a nos jours - 1923- Editions Bossard - 43 Rue Madame, 43 - Paris - Tome I - 12th edition Chapter
XIV "LE 'GRAND DERANGEMENT'" pp 457-513.  

"On the 29 Octr 1755 the Fleet sailed from the Rendezvous in the Bason of Mines under the Convoy of His Majesty's Ships"

In the last installment, you remember that an account of the embarkation, manuscripts show that the authorities considred the Acadians being "shipped" with no more concern than they would have in the shipping of cattle, and as a consequence, the ship's manifests, reflected only the number of Acadians being
shipped and did not record the names of the Acadians. 

The following statement in the record shows that they were not concerned with keeping a record of those that were being deported:

"(N.B.) I have made some blunder by the loss of the principal list of those who embarked - but the number of souls that embarked on board of these transports were 2921 - how many embarked afterwards I know not" - (ACADIA" - Edourd Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, pp. 120-121) - (Naomi E.S. Griffiths - "THE ACADIAN DEPORTATION: Deliberate Perfidy or Cruel Necessity" - p. 143 [quoting a manuscript account of Brown compiled in 1760's]) 

ESCORT SHIPS OF THE EXPULSION

"On the 29 Octr 1755 the Fleet sailed from the Rendezvous in the Bason of Mines under the Convoy of His Majesty's Ships": 


BALTIMORE
SLOOP/WAR
FROM GOAT ISLAND AT ANNAPOLIS ROYALL TO SOUTH CAROLINA

        The war/sloop Baltimore, T. Owen, Captain, escorted a convoy of 2 ships, 3 snows and one brigantine from Goat Island, at Annapolis Royal, to South Carolina. The Baltimore departed from Goat Island on 8 December, 1755 arrived in South Carolina on  ??. 
        The 6 transports that the Baltimore escorted in December, 1755,  carried an average of 278 Acadian exiles each. This is in contrast to the  average of 167 per transport that was carried off in October, 1755. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 269)
        Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the Baltimore, Captain Owen, as one of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians from Annapolis Royal to New York; ("Charles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportationet apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens"  by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4)
______________________________________________________________________

CAROLINA
(2 SHIPS NAMED CAROLINA)
FROM MINAS BAY TO VIRGINIA

        Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the two Carolinas as two of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians from Mines to Virginia, and Maryland ("Charles Belliveau et les seins durant la Deportationet apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens" by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4)
______________________________________________________________________

HALIFAX 
SNOW
FROM MINAS BAY TO VIRGINIA

        The snow Halifax, John Taggart Captain, departed from Minas Bay to Virginia. The dates of her departure and arrival is unknown. However, the Snow (Halifax), Captain Taggert, was listed by Edouard Richard as an escort for the transports that departed in October, 1755. (ACADIA" - Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121)
______________________________________________________________________

HORNET
SHIP
ANNAPOLIS ROYALL TO MASSACHUSETTS

        The ship Hornet, Captain __?__ Salt, Master departed from Annapolis Royal on 28 October, 1755 and arrived in Massachusetts on 17 November, 1755. The Hornet was to proceed to Boston and then on to Spithead. - (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.).
        Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the Hornet, Captain Salt, as one of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians from Annapolis Royal to Boston, and then to Spithead; ("Charles Belliveau  et les seins durant la
Deportationet apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens"  by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4)
______________________________________________________________________

MERMAID
SHIP
FROM ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO MASSACHUSETTS

        The ship Mermaid, Captain Wash. Shirley, departed from Annapolis Royal on 13 October, 1755 and arrived at Massachusetts on 17 November, 1755.
         Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the Mermaid, captain SHIRLEY, as one of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians to Connecticut.("Charles Belliveau  et les seins durant la Deportationet apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens"  by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 197, p. 4)
______________________________________________________________________

NIGHTINGALE
SHIP
MINAS BAY TO MARYLAND

        The ship Nightingale, Dudley Diggs Captain, was part of the 3 warship escort to the 24 transports that sailed from Minas Bay on October 28, 1755 (some say October 13th). The Nightingale was destined for Maryland and the date of arrival is unknown. (probably didn't arrive at all). 
        The Nightingale was seperated from the rest of the convoy of transports and escort vessels during a violent storm (Severe Storms and a massive earthquake occured at the time of the deportation) and landed at New York. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 287) - also (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.).(ACADIA" - Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121)
        Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the Nightingale, Captain DIGGS, to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians from Mines to Pennsylvania, then proceed to his station at New York. ("Charles Belliveau  et les seins durant
la Deportationet apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens"  by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973,  p. 4)
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SUCCESS
SHIP
FROM CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA

        The ship Success, John Rouse, Captain, departed from Chignecto on 13 October, 1755 and was to proceed with the fleet to South Carolina. Her arrival date is unknown. (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.)
        Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the Success, Captain ROUS, as one of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians ,to assist in embarking them and to look into the St. John River. ("Charles Belliveau  et les seins
durant la Deportationet apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens", by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4)
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H.M.S. SYREN
FROM CHIGNECTO (FORT BEAUSEJOUR)  TO GEORGIA

        H.M.S. Syren, Charles Proby, Esq. Commander, escorted 2 transports that were sent from Chignecto (Fort Beausejour) and destined for Georgia. The Syren arrived at Tybee island at the mouth of the Savanah River with 120 exiles , mostly women and children. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution
- Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 287)
        They passed the bar on Novenber 27th (reported in the N.Y. newspaper N.Y. Mercury). They were prevented from landing so they departed for Agusta. 
        An account of the arrival of 3 ships escorted by H.M.S. Syren: "on Saturday arrived here, under convoy of H.M.S. Syren, Charles Proby, Esq., Commander, from the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia, a ship, a Brigantyine and a sloop, having on board 471 of French Neutrals (ship 210, bragintine 137, and sloop
124, and we hear that several children have been born in passage.ö. And the next day: "The same day (yesterday) arrived here another sloop with 127 French from Nova Scotia, but last from Boston. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson, p. 291)
        Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen, informed John Cleveland, Esq., Secretary to the Admiralty, that he included the SYREN, Captain PROBY, as one of the ships to convoy the transports that were to carry the Acadians  from Chignecto to Georgia.("Charles Belliveau  et les seins durant la Deportationet apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens", by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973, p. 4)
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WARREN
SCHOONER
FROM MINAS BAY TO SOUTH CAROLINA
        
        The armed schooner, Warren, Captain Adams, was an escort for the transports. (ACADIA" - Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121) The schooner Warren, Abraham Adams, Captain, departed from Minas Bay on 13 October, 1755, destined for South Carolina. The date of arrival in South Carolina is unknown.
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YORK
SHIP
FROM ANNAPOLIS ROYALL TO BOSTON

        The ship York, Sylvanns Cobb, Captain, departed from Annapolis Royal on 13 October, 1755 and arrived at Boston on 17 November, 1755.

DEPORTATION TRANSPORTS

        On August 11, 1755 Col. Charles Lawrence issued instructions to his Field Commanders for the transportation of the Acadians from Pisiquid, Mines, Cannard and Coquebid. He stated that the ships will first be sent from Boston to Col. Moncton, commander of Fort Cumberland (formerly Fort Beausejour) at
Chignecto, with orders that those transports that are not needed at Chignecto, will be sent to the Minas Bay area. There they were to join the transports that had been sent to Minas from Boston, to help with the transport of the inhabitants from Minas.  
        Of the ten transports sent to Chignecto, three were not needed, the BOSCOWAN, James Newell, master, the DOVE, Samuel Forbes, master and the RANGER, Nathaniel Munroe, master. 
        These three transports were sent to Minas on October 13, 1755 and joined the fleet in the Bay of Minas. (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.)
        Because Major Handfield had problems in assembling the Acadians in Annapolis Royall, (taking from August until early December), the transports that were sent to him at Annapolis Royall were diverted to Col. Winslow at Minas. 
        Three of these transports were then assigned to Captain Murray at Pisiquid. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson - p. 280)
        After the inhabitants were loaded aboard the ships at Minas, Col Lawrence instructed that the transports that were not needed at Minas, were to be sent to Major Handfield at Annapolis Royall. The Acadians at Annapolis Royal were then shipped off from Goat Island at 5:00 o'clock in the morning on Monday 8 December, 1755.
        Lawrence specifically instructed that the sloop Dove be sent to Annapolis to take the inhabitants to Connecticut "to which the vessel belongs". (p. 271 - 273 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published in 1869, by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865)
        "On the 29 Octr 1755 the Fleet saild from the Rendezvous in the Bason of Mines under the Convoy of His Majestys Ships." The transports vessels were as follows : 
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BOSCOWAN
Schooner 95 tons
CHIGNECTO TO PENNSYLVANIA
  
        The schooner BOSCOWAN, 95 tons, David Bigham, Captain, sailed to the Minas Basin and joined the fleet that was in the Bay of Minas. The Boscowan departed from Chignecto on October 13, 1755 with 190 exiles, destined for Pennsylvania. The date of arrival in Pennsylvania is unknown.
        The Schooner Boscowan, like the others, was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot's fee and provisions,  by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published in 1869, by
resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865) also (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.)
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BOSCOWAN
Schooner 63 tons
CHIGNECTO TO MINAS - NOT USED

        The schooner BOSCOWAN, 63 tons, James Newell, Captain, was among the transports that were sent by Col. Charles Lawrence to Chignecto for the use of Col Moncton. When the Boscowan was not needed at Chignecto, Col. Moncton sent the Boscowan to Minas on October 13, 1755. While at Minas, the Boscowan ran aground at Pisiquid, and was not used as a transport. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson) also (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN  DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut,Inc.)
        The Schooner Boscowan, like the others, was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot's fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869, by
resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865)
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EDWARD CORNWALIS
Ship 130 tons
CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA

        The ship CORNWALIS, 130 tons, Andrew Sinclair, Captain, departed from Chignecto on 13 October, 1755, with 417 exiles under the direction of Col. Moncton. The Cornwalis arrived in South Carolina on 19 November, 1755, with 207 exiles. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by
Lawrence Henry Gipson)
        "Half of the people shipped on the Edward Cornwalis, destination South Carolina, died on Routeö. (In Council Records, Columbia, sc, 480 -  ôReport of the Edward Cornwalis, by Andrew Sinclair, Master, 17 November, 1755: "210 dead, 207 in healthö,[Naomi E.S. Griffiths - "The Contexts of ACADIAN HISTORY" 1686-1784 p. 93])
        The Corwalis was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot's fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published in 1869, by resolution of the House
of Assembly on March 15, 1865)
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DOLPHIN
Sloop 87 tons
PISIQUID TO MARYLAND

        According to copies of accounts, dated ---, 1756, transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock, to Governor Lawrence, the Sloop Dolphin, 87 tons Zebad Forman (Farnam) Master, was chartered from Apthorp & Hancock of Boston ôfrom 25 August to 20th February, 1756 to carry 230 Neutrals, 56  more than his complement of two to a ton, at 9s. per two Hallifax Curry, pr Capt Murray Directions.ö published on pages (p. 285 - 293  of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869, by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865.)also (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson, p. 278) Some accounts have 174 men aboard the Dolphin.
        Sloop Dolphin, 87 tons, Captain Farman arrived in Pisiquid from Port Royal on 12 October, 1755 and embarked on 10-12 October. The Dolphin departed from Pisiquid on 27 October, 1755 and arrived at Annapolis Maryland on 15-30 November, 1755 with 230 (56 surnombres) passengers. (Emile Lauviere - "La Tragedie d'un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)
        The monthly charter fee for the Dolphin for 5 months and 26 days was 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott , plus provisions . The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and
5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865.)
        On October 14, 1755, Captain Alexander Murray writes: "0n this fateful Oct. 14th: "I am at this moment embarking the people on board the two Sloops: the "Three Friends" and the "Dolphin". The shipping point north end of Pisiquid at the junction of the Avon and St. Croix rivers. (Photo copy of an article that appeared in the Windsor, N.S. newspaper entitled "EXPULSION OF ACADIANS ORGANIZED AT WINDSOR")  
        The Dolphin (87 tons burden, Zebad Farman, master) with 227 (or 230), 56 over her compliment aboard, had embarked from Pisiguit, under the direction of Capt. Alexander Murray on October 27, 1755 and arrived in Maryland on 30 November, 1755.
        Some accounts have Captain Murray loading the ships on October 27th and the ships leaving the harbour on  October 28, 1755 . However, records show that the Sloop Dolphin - Zebad Forman, master - left Pisiquid with 227 aboard. 
        While at sea, The Dolphin, along with 5 other transports, met with a furious gale after their departure from Mines Basin, and entered the harbor of Boston, on November 5, 1755.  The fleet of six transports with French Neutrals aboard sought shelter for a number of days, and this delay further depleted their supplies which were low since the begining of the voyage. (Nova Scotia Doc., I, 42-4) - Because of the dreadful overcrowding and the delay in Boston due to the storms, the ships' stores were depleted.  
        While in Boston, the vessels were inspected and it was reported that the passengers aboard the Dolphin were "Sickley, occasioned by being to much crowded, 40 lying on deck;" and their water bad. They want an allow'e of Rum &c." and "The vessels are to much crowded; their allowences of Provisions
short ...". 
        Following the inspection at Boston, 47 passengers were removed due to overcrowding and/or health conditions reducing the number of exiles to 2 per ton.  Fresh water and minimal supplies and assistance was given to the passengers by the Massachusetts Bay authorities, and the vessels sailed southward. The Dolphin, continuing its voyage, reached Maryland on November 30, 1755 with  180 aboard. (Gregory A. Wood - THE FRENCH PRESENCE IN MARYLAND _ 1524-1800 - p. 65-66) (Basil Sollers - THE ACADIANS (FRENCH NEUTRALS) TRANSPORTED TO MARYLAND, p. 9), (Al Lafreniere - "Acadian Deportation Ships)
        Edouard Richard refers to the Dolphin as "Corvette Dolphin" 87 tons  Captain Zebad Forman, was used to transport 174 Acadian exiles (56 additional). (ACADIA" - Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121)
        The Dolphin with 230 exiles and the Ranger with 263 exiles  followed the arrival of the Elizabeth and Leopard in the Annapolis Harbor. The two vessels carried 493 men, women and children transported from Pisiquid under the directions of Captain Alexandre Murray 
        On the last 2 days of the months, the other 3 sloops were anchored in the Severn, but their captains seemed most anxious about the Maryland council's refusal to permit immediate landing in the absence of Gov. Sharpe, who was attending a conference of colonial executives in New York. ( Gregory Wood
Acadians in Maryland - A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.)
        In a letter dated 17 February, 1996, Stanley Piet of Bel Air Maryland, writes that the "NOTARY PUBLIC RECORD BOOK 1774-1778 in the Hall of Records for the state of Maryland, located at 350 Rowe Blvd., Annapolis Maryland 21401, show the arrival of the ships in Maryland, but there are no people identified. Information listed on the ships Ranger and Dolphin is as follows:
        "Ranger - Wm. Burkman, Caines Bay, owner. Francis Peirey, Captain, Order from Alexander Murray, Commander of his Majesty's Troops at Pisgate arrived Severn River, Annapolis 29 November 1755. Sent to Oxford Maryland."  "Dolphin - Zebediah Farnman, master, Sent to Lower Marlborough, Patuxent River".
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DOLPHIN
Sloop 90 tons
CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA

        The sloop DOLPHIN, 90 tons, William Hancock, Captain, departed from Chignecto with 121 Acadian exiles on 13 October, 1755, destined for South Carolina and arrived in South Carolina on 19 November, 1755. 
        The sloop Dolphin was probably chartered, like the others, for a monthly fee(per ton), plus a pilot's fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of
the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865)
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DOVE
Sloop 87 tons
GRAND PRE (POINTE DES BOUDRO) TO CONNECTICUT

        The sloop DOVE, 87 tons, Samuel Forbes, Captain, departed on 8 (or 13) December, 1755 from Pnte des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 114 exiles, destined for Connecticut and arrived in Connecticut on 30 January, 1756. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson, p. 280)
        The sloop DOVE, Forbes, Captain, departed on 18, December, 1755 from Grand Pre with 114 exiles destined for Connecticut. (Emile Lauviere - "La Tragedie d'un peuple, vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)
        The sloop Dove was probably chartered, like the others, for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot's fee and provisions, by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM
PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865)
        However, in his instructions on 11 August, 1755, Lawrence suggests: "If it is not very inconvenient I would have you send the Sloop Dove to Annapolis to take on board part of the inhabitants there destined for Connecticut to which place that vessel belongs." (p. 273 - SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869  by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865)
        Emile Lauvriere, in his "LA TRAGEDIE D'UN PEUPLE" - Histoire du Peuple Acadien - des origines a nos jours - 1923- Editions - Bossard - 43 Rue Madame, 43 - Paris - Tome I - 12th edition Chapter XIV "LE 'GRAND DERANGEMENT'" pp 457-513, in listing some of the vessels used in the expulsion on page 500, refers to the Dove, referred to by others as a sloop as ôla goelette Dove, destines for connecticutö, and two other vessesl, referred to by others as schooners as ôla goelette Race Horse, destines for bostonö and ôla goelette Ranger, destined for virginiaö, probably indicates that some the ships listed as schooners, or sloops were actually goelettes or vice-versa.
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EAGLE
Sloop
Captain McKown
Halifax to Boston 

        According to Al Lafreniere, the Sloop EAGLE, Captain McKown, a commercial vessel, carried some of the stragglers, believed to be the LeBlanc family (4 members and possibily others) from Halifax, leaving on April 1, 1756 and arriving in Boston on May 29, 1756.
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EDWARD
Snow 139 tons
ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO CONNECTICUT

        The snow EDWARD,139 tons, Ephram Cooke, Master, departed from Annapolis Royal with 278 exiles (41 men, 42 women, 86 boys and 109 girls) on 8 December, 1755 destined for Connecticut and was blown off course by violent storms. It finally put into Antigua and continued on to Connecticut. It finally arrived in Connecticut on May 22, 1756 with 180 exiles.
                EDWARDS, 278 persons, for Connecticut. ("Carles Belliveau  et les seins durant la Deportation et apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens" by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973 p. 4.)

        The snow Edward, 139 tons  destined for  Connecticut, for a 28 day voyage with 41 men 42 women, 86 boys and 109 girls for a total of 278 passengers. (Emile Lauviere - "La Tragedie d'un peuple , vol 1, p. 485, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)
        During the voyage, almost 100 had died of malaria and when they arrived in Connecticut their personal items such as blankets, cushions, etc were ordered burned, further adding to their grief. (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.).
        According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock, to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 - 293  of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  - The "Snow Edward" Ephm. Cook Master was chartered from Apthrop and Hancock from 9th October, 1755 to 29th June, 1756 (Boston Sept 7th, 1756) (New York 22, May 1756).
        The monthly charter fee for the Edward for 8-2/3 months was 9s sterling per ton per month - plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott, plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, published in 1869 by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865)
        The EDWARDS, left Annapolis Royal with 278 persons, bound for Connecticut.  
        The Acadians at Annapolis Royal were shipped off from Goat Island at 5:00 o'clock in the morning on Monday 8 December, 1755.

*****
Note: Lucie LeBlanc Consentino writes: "An interesting piece of history..."

The snow, EDWARD, Captain Ephraim Cooke, left Annapolis Royal with 278 exiles and blown off course by violent storms. It finally put into port at Antigua and then continued on to Connecticut, arriving on May 22, 1756 with 180 exiles.  Malaria had killed almost 100 exiles.  Upon their arrival in New London, Connecticut, their personal items consisting of blankets, cushions and such, were burned causing further dismay and grief to the deported.  Among those known to be aboard the EDWARD were Marie BOURG(Bourque), widow of Charles LANDRY with their seven children.

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ELIZABETH
Ship 166 tons
ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO CONNECTICUT

        According to Al Lafreniere, the Ship Elizabeth replaced the TWO SISTERS that never left Annapolis Royal. The TWO SISTERS was supposed to carry 280 French (42 men, 40 women, 95 boys and 103 girls).
        The ship ELIZABETH, 166 tons,  Ebenezer Rockwell, captain, departed from Annapolis Royal on 8 December, 1755 with 280  exiles ( 42 men, 40 women, 95 boys and 103 girls) destined for Connecticut and arrived in New London Connecticut on 21 January, 1756 with 277 exiles. The Elizabeth left with 280
and three died enroute. Information that supports this can be found in the Connecticut Gazette (copy in the Yale University library).(Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.).
        Like all of the other transports, the Elizabeth was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot's fee and provisions,  by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869)
        The Acadians at Annapolis Royal were shipped off from Goat Island at 5:00 o'clock in the morning on Monday 8 December, 1755.
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ELIZABETH
Sloop 97 (93) tons
GRAND PRE TO MARYLAND

        Sailing orders were given to Captain Milbury of the sloop Elizabeth by Col. Lawrence on October 13, 1755. 
        The sloop ELIZABETH, 97 tons, Nathaniel Millbury, Captain, departed on 27 October, 1755 from Grand Pre with 242 exiles, (52 more that the complement of 2 persons per ton) destined for Maryland and arrived in Maryland on 20 November, 1755  (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 279 also p. 304 ) With 186 men aboard.
        The sloop ELIZABETH, 93 tons, Nathaniel Millbury, Captain, arrived in Grand Pre from Boston on 4 September embarked 186 exiles on October 8 and departed on 8 October, 1755 from Grand Pre with 242 exiles , and arrived in Maryland on 15-30 November, 1755  (Emile Lauviere - "La Tragedie d'un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)
        On November 20, 1755 - The Maryland Gazette announced the arrival of the Elizabeth (93 tons burden, Nathaniel Milbury, master), with 242 passengers from Grand Pre, an excess of 56 over her complement. ( page 7 Maryland Historical Magazine - Vol. III No. 1, March 1908 - "The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland" - Basil Sollers) 
        Edouard Richard listed a Corvette _____, 93 tons with 186 exiles and with a Captain Milbury listed as master. (Although he does not list the name of the ship, Captain Milbury was the master of  of the 97 ton sloop Elizabeth) (ACADIA" - Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI,  p. 121) According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 - 293  of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of
Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869 - The Sloop Elizabeth, Nathaniel Milberry Master was chartered from Boston Mercantile Co. Apthorp and Hancock to transport the French inhabitants from Nova Scotia to Maryland from 20 august 1755 to 20th March 1756  - 52 persons more than Complement of 2 to a ton, at
5s.4d. ( ---, 1756). also (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson   p. 278-79) 
        The monthly charter fee for the Elizabeth was 7 months at 49 12 pr month, pounds sterling  - plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869)
        Nathanial Milberry, master of the sloop Elizabeth, with its 242 exiles aboard, was the first to file a complaint, arguing that he was unfairly ordered to the Wicomico River area of the Eastern Shore to wait Sharpe's return, but that no provisions were made for any compensation for food and supplies. ( Gregory Wood Acadians in Maryland - A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.)
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ENDEAVOR (ENCHEREE)
Ship 83 tons
POINTE DES BOUDRO TO VIRGINIA

        The Endeavor - Captain John Stone, arrived from Boston on  Saturday August 30, 1755 and anchored at the entrance to the Gaspereau River.  The ship ENDEAVOR (ENCHEREE), 83 tons, John Stone Captain departed 27 October, 1755 from Pnte des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 166 exiles for Virginia and arrived in Virginia on 11 (or 13) November, 1755. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 300 also p. 277) - Had 166 men aboard. 
        The ship ENDEAVOR , 83 tons, John Stone Captain arrived at Grand Pre (Pnte des Boudro) from Boston on Auigust 30 and embarked on 19 October The Endeavor departed 27 October, 1755 from Pnte des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 166 exiles for Virginia and arrived in Virginia on 15-30 November, 1755. (Emile Lauviere - "La Tragedie d'un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)
        The Endeavor was one of the six transports that took shelter from a fierce winter storm in the Boston Harbour on  November 5, 1755. While at Boston to seek shelter for a number of days, the vessel was inspected and an undisclosed number of Acadians were removed to reduce the numer aboard to 2 persons per ton.
        The delay in the voyage when they were in the Boston Harbour for a few days further depleted their supplies which were low since the begining of the voyage. So, ffresh water and minimal supplies and assistange was given to the passengers on board the Endeavor by the Massachusetts Bay authorities and the
vessels sailed southward. (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.).
        Edouard Richard mentions a "Corvette Endeavor", 83 tons with a  Captain Stone as master being used to transport 166 exiles. (ACADIA" - Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI,  p. 121)
        According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 - 293  of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869 - the Sloop Endeavor (also known as
Encheree), John Stone master was chartered from Boston Mercantile Co. Apthorp and Hancock from  hence to Minas & Virginia to carry off French inhabitants from 21 August to 11 December. 
        The monthly charter fee for the Endeavor was  3 months 21 days 44 pounds 54 pr month , pounds sterling  - plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869)
        According to the publication "The Acadian Exile in St. Malo", the governor of Virginia refused to accept the acadians that were alloted to Virginia, and the 1,500 Acadians sent to Virginia on October 25, 1755 were in Virginia were not allowed to disembark and more of them diedaboard the crowded ships during the 4 months that the ship were anchored uin the Williamsburg harbor. They were then transported to England and placed in concentration camps in the port cities of their arrival, where they languished until after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when they were released and repatriated (sent) to the maritime ports of Normandy and Britanny.
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ENDEAVOR
Sloop 96 tons
CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA

        The sloop ENDEAVOR, 96 tons, James Nichols, captain, departed from Chignecto on 13 October, 1755 with 121 exiles destined for South Carolina and arrived in South Carolina on 19 November, 1755.
        Al Lafreniere lists an ENDEAVOR, James Nichols, master, as arriving at South Carolina with 121 exiles. It is not known how many exiles boarded at Chignecto. (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.)
        The sloop Endeavor was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot's fee and provisions,  by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869)
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ENDEAVOR
Sloop 96 tons
CHIGNECTO TO SOUTH CAROLINA

        The sloop ENDEAVOR, 96 tons, James Nichols, captain, departed from Chignecto on 13 October, 1755 with 121 exiles destined for South Carolina and arrived in South Carolina on 19 November, 1755.
        Al Lafreniere lists an ENDEAVOR, James Nichols, master, as arriving at South Carolina with 121 exiles. It is not known how many exiles boarded at Chignecto. (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.).
        The sloop Endeavor was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot's fee and provisions,  by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869)
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EXPERIMENT
Brigge 136 tons
ANNAPOLIS ROYAL TO NEW YORK

        The Brigge EXPERIMENT,136 tons - Benjamin Stoddard, captain  departed on 8 December 8, 1755 from Annapolis Royal with 250 exiles (40 men, 45 women, 56 boys and 59 girls) for New York and arrived 30 May, 1756.  The Experiment, 136 tons  destined for New York  ,for a 28 day voyage with  40 men  45  women,  56  boys and  59  girls for a total of 200  passengers. (Emile Lauviere -"La Tragedie d'un peuple , vol 1, p. 485, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)
                EXPERIMENT, 200 persons, for New York. ("Carles Belliveau  et les seins durant la Deportation et apres; Prises de batreaux anglais par les Acadiens" by Placide Gaudet, apparently written in 1922 and given near Annapolis Royal. The article appeared in AGE Vols II, 1973 p. 4.)
        Al Lafreniere states that the EXPERIMENT, Benjamine Stoddard, master, was blown off course as was the EDWARD and arrived in New York, via Antigua with 200 exiles. The Experiment left Annapolis Royal with 250 exiles. (Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.)
        According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 - 293  of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869 - The Brigge Experiment, Benjamin Stoddard Master 136 tons was chartered from Bocton Mercantile Co apthorp and Hancock from 10th October 1755 to 27th May 1756.
        The monthly charter fee for the Experiment  was 7 months 16 days at 9s sterling per ton per month , pounds sterling  - plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilot , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked.  (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869)
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LEOPARD
Schooner 87 tons
GRAND PRE TO MARYLAND

        The schooner LEOPARD (Leonard, Leynard), 87 tons, Thomas Church Master, departed from Grand Pre on 27 October, 1755 with 178 exiles (an excess of 4 over her complement) destined for Maryland  and arrived in Maryland on 30 December, 1755. With 174 men aboard.
        The schooner LEOPARD (Leonard, Leynard), 87 tons, Thomas Church Master, arrived in Grand Pre from Boston on 6 September and embarked 178 exiles on 8 October. She departed from Grand Pre on 27 October, 1755 with 178 exiles (an excess of 4 over her complement) destined for Annapolis Maryland  and arrived in Maryland on 30 December, 1755. With 174 exiles aboard. (Emile Lauviere - "La Tragedie d'un peuple , vol 1, Librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)
        The LEOPARD ( also known as Leonard or Leynard)- Captain Thomas Church arrived at Minas Basin on Saturday - September 6, 1755.  Edouard Richard mentions a Schooner Leopard,  Captain Church,  87 tons being used to transport 174 exiles. (ACADIA" - Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI, p. 121)
        According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 - 293  of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869 - The Schooner LEYNORD, THOMAS CHURCH MASTER  was chartered from 20th Auigust 1755 to 10th February 1756, is 5 months 21 days at 46 pounds 8 lawful money pr. month., etc.. The monthly charter fee for the Leynord was 5 months 21 days at 46 pounds 8s lawful money per month, pounds sterling  - plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott , plus
provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of
Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869)
        Thomas Church, Master of the Scooner Leopard, 87 tons burden, was given sailing orders for the Leopold by John Winslow on October 13, 1755 and  the Leopard left Grand Pre on October 28, 1755 with 178 passengers aboard , an excess of 4 over her complement. She arrived in Annapolis harbor on November 20, 1755. The ship had carried the Acadians from Grand Pre. 
        The arrival was announced on November 20, 1755 by the Maryland Gazette (page 7 - Maryland Historical Magazine - Vol. III No. 1, March 1908 - "The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland - Basil Sollers) Later when the Leopard was transporting troops under the command of General
Preble from Halifax to Boston, they picked up 70 exiles at Pubnico that were destined for North Carolina. 
        When the Leopard landed at Boston , the Acadian exiles disembarked. Captain Church reported: " They arose a great dissention among the French and they all rose, forced their way on shore with their baggage and it was not in my power to proceed . . . "  (p. 7 Basil Sollers) also (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 277 and also p. 298)
        Nathanial Milberry, master of the sloop Elizabeth, with its 242 exiles aboard, was the first to file a complaint, arguing that he was unfairly ordered to the Wicomico River area of the Eastern Shore to wait Sharpe's return, but that no provisions were made for any compensation for food and supplies. 
        The Leopard, with 178 passengers aboard, was the first to anchor in Annapolis Harbor, on November 24, 1755. The Leopard was newly constructed in New England and registered on April 10, 1755 at Cambridge. The schooner was owned and captained by Thomas Church, who alone of the four seemed adequately prepared to wait in Severn for Maryland officials to decide the proper disembarkation of a group practicaly equal to the population of Annapolis. 
        The Passengers of the Leopard wound up in Baltimore and Annapolis, Maryland. 
        On the last 2 days of the months, the other 3 sloops were anchored in the Severn , but their captains seemed most anxious about the Maryland council's refusal to permit immediate landing in the absence of Gov. Sharpe, who was attending a conference of colonial executives in New York. (Gregory Wood Acadians in Maryland - A Guide to the Acadians in Maryland in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.)
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MARY
Sloop 90-1/2 tons
POINTE DES BOUDRO TO VIRGINIA

        On Saturday - August 30, 1755  Sloop  MARY,  sloop, 90 tons - Andrew Dunning, captain arrived from Boston and anchored at the entrance to the Gaspereau River, and on 27 October, 1755  departed  from Pnte des Boudro (Grand Pre) with 182 exiles  arriving in Virginia on13 November, 1755. (The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 277 also p. 300) 181 men aboard
        Sloop  MARY,  sloop, 90-1/2 tons - Andrew Dunning, captain arrivedfrom Boston on 30 August and anchored at the entrance to the Gaspereau River (pointe-aux-Boudreaux) ,  she embarked 182 exiles on 10 October and on 27 October, 1755 departed  from Pnte des Boudro (Grand Pre) destined for Williamsburg Virginia. (Emile Lauvriere - La Tragedie d'un peuple, vol I, librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)
        Edouard Richard mentions a "Corvette Mary", 90-1/2 tons,  Captain Denny, being used to transport 181 exiles (ACADIA" - Edouard Richard Vol. 2,Chapter XXXI,  p. 121)
        According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 - 293  of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869 - Sloop Mary,  Andrew Dunning master was chartered from Boston Mercantile Co Apthorp and Hancock from hence to Minas &Virginia , to carry off French inhabitants from  20th August to 12 December, 1755  (---,1755). 
        The monthly charter fee for the Mary, was 3 months and 23 days at 48 pounds 5  4d pr mth. pounds sterling - for a total (including p[ilot at 60s pr month) of 139 pounds 166 pounds sterling, plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was
to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869) 
        According to the publication "The Acadian Exile in St. Malo", the governor of Virginia refused to accept the acadians that were alloted to Virginia, and the 1,500 Acadians sent to Virginia on October 25, 1755 were in Virginia were not allowed to disembark and more of them diedaboard the crowded ships during the 4 months that the ship were anchored uin the Williamsburg harbor. They were then transported to England and placed in concentration camps in the port cities of their arrival, where they languished until after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when they were released and repatriated (sent) to the maritime ports of Normandy and Britanny.
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MARY
Schooner
CAPE SABLE TO NEW YORK

(The Schooner Mary was listed as an unknown Schooner, but probably was Capt. Durning's 2nd voyage)

        The Schooner, (name and  tonnage unknown), Andrew Durning, Captain departed from Cape Sable with 94 exiles destined for New York. The date of departure is unknown, but the schooner arrived at New York on 28 April, 1756. 
        Captain Andrew Dunning, must have returned to Nova Scotia after his voyage on the Mary to Virginia, as he is reported to have shipped about 100 exiles (94 arrived), in a schooner from Cape Sable to New York. His schooner arrived in New York on April 28, 1756.(Albert N. Lafreniere - "ACADIAN DEPORTATION SHIPS" - "Connecticut Maple Leaf", volume 6, published by the French-Canadian
Genealogical Society of Connecticut, Inc.).
        This schooner was probably chartered for a monthly fee (per ton), plus a pilot's fee and provisions,  by Governor Lawrence, from Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of the Boston Mercantile Company of Apthorp and Hancock, to be used as a transport for the removal of the Acadian Exiles to the eastern
seaboard. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence and was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of
Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869)
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NEPTUNE
Schooner 90 tons
PISIQUID TO VIRGINIA

        On Saturday - August 30, 1755  the Schooner NEPTUNE, 90 tons Jonathan Davis, captain - arrives from Boston and anchors at the entrance to the Gaspereau River. Some reports have the Neptune arriving on Sunday - August 31, 1755.With 180 Men aboard. 
        Schooner NEPTUNE, 90 tons - Jonathan Davis, (Ford) captain - arrives in Pisiquid from Boston on 31 August and anchors at the entrance to the Gaspereau River She embarques 206 exiles (27 surnombres) on October 10-12  and departs on 27 November destined for Williamsburg, arriving on 15-30 November. (Emile Lauvriere - La Tragedie d'un peuple, vol I, librairie Henry Geulet, Paris, 1924)
        On October 14, 1755 , Jonathan Davis was Captain of the "Neptune" 156 tons and he was replaced by the owner William Ford as Master."  ( Photo copy of an article that appeared in the Windsor, N.S. newspaper entitled "EXPULSION OF ACADIANS ORGANIZED AT WINDSOR"). 
        The Schooner NEPTUNE, 90 tons with owner William Ford as Master.- 1755 departed from Pisiquid with 207 exiles 27 more than the complement on 27 October, 1755 and  arrived in Virginia on 13  November, 1755.(The British Empire Before The American Revolution - Vol. VI by Lawrence Henry Gipson p. 278-279 also p. 300) 
        The Neptune was one of the six transports that took shelter from a fierce winter storm in the Boston Harbour on  November 5, 1755. While at Boston to seek shelter for a number of days, the vessel was inspected and said to be "healthy tho 40 lie on the deck". 29 Acadians were removed by the harbor
authorities  to reduce the numer aboard to 2 persons per ton. (Maryland Historical Magazine - Vol. III No. 1, March 1908 - "The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland" - Basil Sollers p. 7)
        The delay in the voyage when they were in the Boston Harbour for a few days further depleted their supplies which were low since the begining of the voyage. So, fresh water, minimal supplies and assistange was given to the passengers on board the Neptune by the Massachusetts Bay authorities and the
vessels then sailed southward.  
        Edouard RICHARD mentions a Schooner Neptune, 90 tons, Captain Davis,  being used to transport 180 exiles - (27 additional). (ACADIA" - Edouard Richard Vol. 2, Chapter XXXI,  p. 121)
        According to copies of accounts transmitted by Charles Apthorp & Thomas Hancock, of Boston Mercantile Company Apthorp and Hancock , to Governor Lawrence published on pages p. 285 - 293  of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869 - The Schooner Neptune, William Ford
master was chartered from the Boston Mercantile Co. Apthorp and Hancock from hence to Virginia to carry off the French inhabitants. The Neptune was chartered from 20th August to 17th December, and carried 27 Neutrals more than Compliment at 5s. 43/4d. and supplies for 207. 
        The monthly charter fee for the Neptune  was 3 months 28 days at 48 pounds pr mth., pounds sterling  - plus 60 s p. month for hire of a pilott , plus provisions. The amount of provisions for the transports were  included in the sailing orders issued by Lawrence was to be 5 pounds of flour and one pound of pork (or 1 lb of beef 2 lbs bread and 5 lbs of flour) for (each) 7 days for each person so embarked. (p. 280 of SELECTIONS FROM PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OF THE PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, Published by resolution of the House of Assembly on March 15, 1865  in 1869)
        According to the publication "The Acadian Exile in St. Malo", the governor of Virginia refused to accept the acadians that were alloted to Virginia, and the 1,500 Acadians sent to Virginia on October 25, 1755 were in Virginia were not allowed to disembark and more of them diedaboard the crowded ships during the 4 months that the ship were anchored uin the Williamsburg harbor. They were then transported to England and placed in concentration camps in the port cities of their arrival, where they languished until after the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when they were released and repatriated (sent) to the maritime ports of Normandy and Britanny.

Copyright © 1999 Don Landry