|SOUTH CAROLINA - 942 Acadians
The book History of South Carolina states that the first ship to arrive was the Baltimore Snow in Nov. 1755. Between November 1755 and January 1756, 942
Acadians arrived in South Carolina. It is known that 5 ships left for South
Carolina on Oct. 13 ... 4 of these from Beaubassin and one from Minas.
The 4 from Beaubassin were the Success (capt. John Rouse),
the Edward Cornwallis (capt. Andrew Sinclair), the Dolphin (capt. William Hancock), and the Endeavor (capt. James Nichols) . Of the 417 Acadians
who boarded the 130 ton Edward Cornwallis, only 207 survived the
trip. The Endeavor arrived with 121 Acadians. We have
arrival dates for the Dolphin (a 90 ton sloop) and Endeavor (a 96 ton sloop) of Nov. 19.
The Nov. 20, 1755 South Carolina Gazette noted that a ship (with 210 Acadians), a brigantine (with 137 Acadians), and a sloop (with 124 Acadians) had arrived the previous Saturday. They were led by Capt. Charles Proby in the Syren.
The Warren, an armed schooner
captained by Abraham Adams, left from Minas.
The sloop Baltimore set sail from Annapolis
Royal on Dec. 8, 1755 and headed for South Carolina. Captained by
T. Owen, it escorted 3 snows, 2 ships, and a brigantine. Gipson says
these ships carryed over 1600 Acadians? [Gipson, V. 6, p. 269]
Some were restricted to the ships for weeks
while officials tried to decide what to do with them. The Nov. 27, 1755 South Caroline Gazette notes that the local officials still had not decided what to do with the 600 "neutral French" that had arrived. ["The General Assembly of this Province have been sitting since Thursday last; but, we don't hear, that they have yet determined, how the 600 Neutral French lately arrived here shall be disposed of. On Saturday last came in, His Majesty's Ship Syven , commanded by the Hon Charles Proby , Esq; and is already sitting out for a Cruze. We hear, she has some Neutral French on board."] The health conditions
were so poor that they eventually unloaded onto the beaches.
The South Carolina Gazette noted on May 7, 1756 that "upwards of 80 Acadians went from hence in Canows (canoes), for the Northward : The Country Scout-Boats accompany them as far as Winyab.
Yesterday upwards of 50 more of those People went for Virginia , in the Sloop Jacob Capt. Noel."
South Carolina, 1759 - note the label for "The French Refugees Settlements"
While there were more French-speaking settlers in South Carolina than in other colonies, these were all Protestants (Huguenots that had begun arriving in 1685). Even they were not happy that they were taxed to pay for 3 months of welfare for the Acadians. The Acadians were barred from owning firearms from fears they would use them for harm.
The Acadians were settled in Charlestown, Saxe-Gotha, Amelia, St. Helena; St. George's; St. James, Goose Creek; Prince George Winyaw, and Prince William's parish; 80% of them were sent to parishes outside the capital. The 20% in Charlestown were supported by the church wardens and vestry of St. Philip's. (Snowden/Cutler, p. 271)
But by 1759, the church was refusing to help the poor Acadians. The Commons House of Assembly noted in March 1759 that the approximately 340 Acadians - who were destitute - were refused assistance by the church wardens of St. Philips. [ref.] By July 12 of 1760, the House noted that the Acadians were down to 210 (42 men, 42 women, 52 boys, and 74 girls). Even though orphans could be bound out to learn a trade and other could earn money serving families, the Acadians insisted on living together in poor conditions. Up to that time, 25,000 pounds had been spent on them. They refused to blend in and after 5 years still wanted to return to their former home. The House urged that they be brought to Europe or some French port in America and offered to pay the costs. [ref.]
Lyn Wilkerson, in Roads Less Traveled, (p. 175) noted that the Acadians settled near the former Lenud's Ferry location on the Santee River. The ferry's name comes from Lanneau, which comes from descendants of 2 Lanoue orphans adpted by Henry Laurens.
French Huguenots had first settled the Santee River area in 1685.
The July 22, 1756 issue of the South Carolina Gazette relates the act passed with regards to the Acadians.
The following ABSTRACT of an Act, intitled an Act for disposing of the A now in Charles-Town, by settling One Fifth Part of their Number in the Parishes of St. Philip and St. Michel, and the other Four Parts of them in the several other Parishes within this Province, is published in this Gazette, by His Excellency's Command, to the End that all Persons concerned may govern themselves accordingly.
ENACTED, That the governor, with the advice of his majesty's council, have power of send 4 5ths of the Acadians , now in Charles-Town, into the several other parishes in this province, in such manner as he shall judge convenient.
That the expense of so sending them shall be defrayed by a general tax.
That the church-wardens and vestries, and other persons appointed for that purpose, shall be obliged to receive and take charge of the Acadians so sent into their respective parishes; and keep them in such places in the said parishes as they shall judge to be most convenient, with the consent of the owners of such places: And shall also provide for their maintenance and support, at the public expense, for the space of three months after receiving them, unless they are sooner disposed of, not exceeding the rate of ten shillings per heads, per week: Under pain of forfeiting five pounds for every Acadian they neglect or refuse to receive, take charge of, maintain, &c.
That in case any Acadians shall remain in many of the said parishes, after the expiration of the said three months, who shall not be able to labour, or whom the church wardens and cannot bind out, such shall be maintained at the public expence.
That when any of the said Acadians are ordered to be sent any of the parishes aforesaid, the commissary-general shall take an account of their number, age, sex, and sizes, and enter the same in a Book, together with the names of the parishes they are sent to; to the end that, if any of them leave the said parishes, they may be returned thereto; which may be done by any justice of the peace: And the said church wardens, &c. are obliged to receive them again, under the like penalty as before imposed.
That in case any of the said Acadians shall refuse to labour with such persons as are willing to provide them with cloaths and victuals for their service, then the said church-wardens, vestry, and other persons to be appointed as aforesaid, or any of the, are authorized and impowered, by a certificate under their or either of their hands and seal, to bind the Acadians , or any of them, to such persons as may be willing to take them, upon such terms, and for such time as the said church wardens, &c. or any of them shall think necessary: But no Acadian upwards of 18 years of age, shall be obliged to serve more than three years, nor any under 18 longer than 'till they arrive at the age of twenty one years.
certificates shall be in the words viz.
SOUTH-CAROLINA. years from the Date hereof, Direction of an Act of the of the failed province intitled, an of the Acadians now in One Fifth Part of Pari of St. Philip and and the other Four Parts of them other Parishes within this said to find the Most, Drink, and .
this Day of Anno Domins.
That the said church wardens, &c. shall have for every such certificate twenty shillings current money, from the person to whom they bind any Acadian: And that the said church-wardens, &c. shall enter the name of every Acadian so by them bound, and of every person to whom bound, in a book; that recourse may be had to the same if need be. But such certificate shall be avoid and of none effect, whenever his majesty's pleasure shall be signified that the said Acadians shall be otherwise disposed of.
That the said certificate shall be sufficient in law to bind every Acadian according, to the tenor thereof, and be transferable, and subject them to all the regulations mentioned in the act for the governing of white servants , as if an indenture had been voluntarily executed by every person so bound.
That the church-wardens, &c. of St. Philip's parish shall dispose of the remaining fifth of the said Acadians , in the same manner and form, and be under the same regulations &c. as is directed in the disposing of them in other parishes. And,
That it shall not be lawful for any of the said Acadians to have or use any fire-arms or other offensive weapons, on any account or pretence whatever; and any person finding such in their possession may take and keep the same to his own proper use.
Passed the 16 th Day of July , 1756.
A letter from South Carolina printed in the April 10, 1760 Pennsylvania Gazette noted the recent casualties, which included Acadians ... "Tis to be presumed you will naturally expect some News relative to the present Situation of this Colony, which you will, in a few Words, conceive, when I assure you, that no Description can surpass its Calamity. --- What few escape the Indians, no sooner arrive in Town, than they are seized with the Small Pox, which generally carries them off; and, from the Numbers already dead, you may judge the Fatality of the Disease. Of the white Inhabitants 95; Acadians 115; Negroes 500, were dead two Days ago, by the Sexton Account. About 1500 white Inhabitants, 1800 Negroes, and 300 Acadians , have had the Distemper, and chiefly by Inoculation."
At least three groups of South Carolina Acadians tried to “escape” to
the west over land. When the officials suspected that they Acadians might
join forces (militarily) with the Indians, they chased after them. Two
of the groups were retrieved. Another group made their way to the Santee
River Valley, stealing weapons and supplies on the way. Only two of the
group are known to have made it to Fort Duquesne in the Ohio Valley.
some northern colonies that tried to absorb the Acadians, the South Carolina
officials encouraged the Acadians to leave. The assembly bought them two
old ships to use. A large number of the Acadians boarded the ships and
sailed northward. When the old ship was beached near Hampton, Virginia,
they put their money together and bought another ship. This ship was also
in poor condition and was beached at Maryland. After working for two months,
they set sail again and reached the St. John River in Nova Scotia. Once
there, many of the Acadians joined in the guerilla confict against the
In the March 22, 1764 Pennsylvania Gazette, an entry from Charlestown, SC notes on Feb. 18 that "The remains of the Acadians that were removed to this province in the year 1755, and who all went from hence for Cape Francois in November last, soon after their arrival there, had land allotted them at Cape Nicola in the Windward Passage, and are settling at the Platform, where most English vessels passing to and from Jamaica commonly call for water; but are by no means pleased, either with their reception or situation."
Not all Acadians were on the old ships that left South Carolina.
Those who stayed behind tried to find work. Some were used as indentured
servants ... perhaps even being taken away in chains.