Exile Destination: England [via Virginia]
|VIRGINIA - about 1500 Acadians
Several ships, carrying 1000-1500 Acadians
(many died on the trip) arrived in Virginia. Once there, they were
not allowed to leave the ships; the government refused to accept them.
Of the 2 ships named Carolina, one carried
Acadians from Minas to Virginia (the other went to Maryland). The Halifax was a snow captained by John Taggart that sailed from Minas to Virginia.
The Endeavor was an 83 ton ship that sailed
from Boudrot Point (near the mouth of the Gaspereau River at Minas).
Captained by John Stone, it carried 166 Acadians who embarked on
Oct. 19, left on Oct. 27, and arrived in Virginia in Nov. 1755. The Endeavor (also called the Encheree) and 5 other ships were detained in Boston
Harbor on Nov. 5 due to bad weather. At Boston, Acadians were unloaded
so that 2 persons per ton remained on the ship. This evidentally
meant that they had been overcrowded (since the ships had been outfitted
for 2 people per ton). They were given more supplies and set sail
south. Upon arriving in Williamburg, they were not allowed to disembark.
During their 4 months in the harbor many of them died before setting sail
for England, where they remained until 1763.
The 90.5 ton sloop Mary, captained
by Andrew Dunning, left Boudrot Point (Minas) on Oct. 27, 1755 with 181
Acadians. It arrived in Virginia on Nov. 13, 1755. [Gipson, V.6, p. 277; Richard, V. 2, p. 121].
The 90 ton schooner Neptune left Pisiquid
on Oct. 27, 1755 under Captain William Ford with 207 Acadians. It
arrived in Virginia on Nov. 13, 1755. [Gipson, V.6,
p. 277]. It was one of the 5 ships that took refuge with the
Endeavor in Boston on Nov. 5.
Lauviere also mentions a goelette Ranger that was headed for Virginia with Acadians.
Gov. Dinwiddle thought they were "internal
enemies." So they were subsequently sent to England. These ships
included the Carolina, the Endeavor, the Halifax,
the Mary, and the Neptune. Gerard Braud also lists
the Race Horse, the Virginia Packet, and the Goodrigde.Braud
also states that 2 ships sank, though I haven't found the source for this
statement. [From Nantes to Louisiana, p. 13]
Just as Lawrence hadn't warned Virginia of
the Acadians arrival, Virginia didn't warn England of their incoming "guests."
The Acadians in England (1756-1763)
were located in 4 primary areas: Bristol, Falmouth, Liverpool,
and Southampton. A total of over 1200 Acadians
arrived in England. Not 800 survived till 1763 when the group went
Shortly after they arrived, smallpox
decimated the ranks of all 4 groups, expecially those at Penryn (at the
gates of Falmouth) where 61 Acadians were buried at Cornwall (the parish
of St. Gluvias) that fall; there are no markers; a common grave was
probably used. Rev. John Penrose was Anglican priest of the church
from 1741-1776. A number of Acadians lived around the farms of Kerkilliack
on the city's (Penryn) heights. France complained of the treatment
of the Acadians, but the English Medical Department said that the charges
were "false, indecent, and absurd." In a 1971 issue of Les Cahiers de la Société historique acadienne, there are lists of Acadians found in church records of England. These include St. Gluvias at Penryn, St. Mary in Liverpool, and St. Mary (Wooten) of Liverpool.
The Acadians were separated from the
rest of the working population. The Admiralty ordered "all the Neutrals
are prohibited from working in order to prevent an outcry by the laborers
in the towns where they reside." … though some did find ways to work, esp.
at Penryn and Southampton. The Acadians were given 6 sous a day for
adults and 3 sous a day for children under 7. Pretty good money for
those days. The payment of this was irregular. When the peace
came England asked France to be reimbursed for these expenses. Infant
deaths were higher than normal for the first 2 years, but things got better.
The 1762 census showed 149 children under age 7, most born in England.
Bristol was known for the slave trade in the
past. "Apparently the Acadians were prisoners in Stapleton, 5 km
north of the city, near the Frome River." It had been the location
of POWs of England's battles with France and Spain in America. On
March 18, 1780, Francois Michel & Anne Daigle told the rector at St.
Martin de Chantenay that before their son Francois was born, they had been
married in Stapleton, England. [From Nantes to
Louisiana, p. 14-15]
| The English tried to get
the Acadians to become English subjects, esp. in 1762 as peach approached.
They were told they'd get to go back to Acadia. A Scottish priest
got the trust of 54 old Acadians by promising them they could go back.
With the end of the war in 1763, the
Acadians, assisted by someone named Duplessis (a French prisoner from La
Havre), wrote to the French ambassador in London … the Duke of Nivernois
(Louis Jules Barbon Mancini Mazarini). Nivernois sent his representative,
Lord de la Rochette, to see the Acadians. At Liverpool, they were
excited to see him, while at Southampton they were reserved. Rochette
persuaded Nivernois and the Colonial Minister (Duke of Choiseul) to help
the Acadians. "The Acadians received the formal promise to be settled
on lands in France at the expense of the King." [Les
exiles Acadiens en France au XVIIIe siecle, Ernest Martin]
Acadian Prisoners of War by Robert Dafford
| The 753 Acadians in England crossed the English
channel. They would find out, however, that the promises of a better
life were quite exaggerated. The lists of those Acadians can be found on the Bristol, Falmouth, Liverpool,
and Southampton pages..
The Acadians from England disembarked at Morlaix
and St. Malo in early summer 1763. Housed in barracks, disease (such
as smallpox) soon killed a good number of them. They thought better
times were just around the corner; but it didn't turn out that way.