Acadian-Cajun Genealogy & History

The 1755 Exile

 
 
The Decision is Made
July 28, 1755
     On July 28, 1755, Lawrence and the council decided to deport the Acadians. Since troops from New England were in the area (they had helped to capture Ft. Beausejour), he sent a note to Moncton letting him know that as soon as the transports (which had been ordered) arrived.  Col. Winslow got orders to sail from Beausejour to Grand Pre with his 300 men. He arrived on August 15 and went to Fort Edward to talk to Murray. 
     The Minas population in 1755 was about 4,500.  Winslow's list,  made in September, had 2,743 people: males (>10) - 446, deputies (imprisoned at Halifax) - 37, married women - 337, sons - 527, daughters - 576, old and infirmed - 820. He clearly did not get a count of all of the people of Minas. 
Acadian settlements, 1755, by Mitchell
Click on image for larger view
     The villages on the south side of Minas River (Cornwallis), sometimes called Minas or Grand Pre, were: Gotro, Pierre LeBlanc, Michel, Melanson, Grand LeBlanc, Gaspereau, Jean LeBlanc, Grand Pre.  On the north side of the Minas River were the villages of the Canard section (around the Canard and Habitant Rivers): Claude Landry, Antoine, Hebert, Dupuis, Brun, Trahan, Saulnier, Poirier, Hebert.  The other villages had <20 people.  The most common names at Grand Pre and Gaspereau (in order of frequency) were: on the south side - LeBlanc, Melanson, Hebert, Richard; on the north side - Boudro, Comeau, Landry, Aucoine, Granger, Terriau, Dupuis. 

August 11, 1755
     Lawrence issued sailing orders to the vessels on August 11.  He and Gov. Shirley had contracted about 2 dozen cargo ships on a monthly basis from Apthrop and Hancock of the Boston Mercantile.  The vessels were refitted to hold 2 people per ton. [Maryland Historical Magazine - V III #1 March 1908,  "The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland",  Basil Sollers, p 7]
       One author described the preparations as follows.  "Before leaving Boston the ships had been renovated by removing the balast stones and the bulk heads of the holds.  In the case of a ship designed to carry 150 tons of cargo, the hold that usually measured approximately 24 feet wide and 48 feet long was lengthened by approximately 12 feet, creating  a large area in the hold of the vessel measuring approximately 24 feet wide by 60 feet long. The removal of the floor timbers and the balast stones increased the heigth to approximately 15 feet high. This enlarged hold space was then divided into three levels of just at or slightly over 4 feet high without windows for light or ventilation. The holds were locked creating a prison with no windows for light or ventilation, no sanitary conditions and no heat, except that of the huddled bodies." [Rushton, 51]
     Ten of the vessels were sent to the Beaubassin area, but the 3 that weren't needed (the Boscowan under Capt. James Newell, the Dove under Capt. Samuel Forbes, and the Ranger under Nathaniel Munroe) moved to the Minas area on Oct. 13.  The Boscowan later ran aground at Pisiquid and wasn't used in the deportation.
     The vessels were ready for use by October 11.

August 15, 1755
     Winslow arrived at Grand Pre on the 15th and camped on the plain where the priest’s house and church were located.  The soldiers’ tents were placed around the churchyard.  Winslow stayed in the priest’s house.  He (Abbe Lemaire of Canard Church) had been taken in on Aug. 10.  The officers were in a nearby house.  The church valuables had been taken by the Acadians when told the church would become a storehouse for the soldiers. 
     The camp was on high ground, NW of Grand Pre, with willows along the roads.  There was a graveyard too.  To the SE was the village with its scattered houses.  Houses lay to the E and W.  Winslow, age 54, had raised 2000 men to attack Beausejour.
     The camp was fortified.  Lawrence thought this might make the Acadians nervous, but Winslow responed that they weren’t; they expected the soldiers to be with them through the winter.  The Acadians had to supply the soldiers with food (for no money).  It was harvest time, and they wanted the Acadians to harvest the grain before being deported.

August 31-September 1, 1755
    On Aug. 31 (Sunday), Winslow & 50 men toured Grand Pre.  On Sept. 1, Capt. Adams & 70 men visited the villages of Canard and Habitant. 

September 2, 1755
     On Sept. 2, Capt. Hobbs visited the village of Melanson, in the Gaspereau valley on the south side of the river.  The commanders decided to have the Acadian men gather at the Grand Pre church to hear the king’s orders.
     The captains (Hobbs, Osgood, Adams) were sworn to secrecy.  By Sept. 1, 3 transports had arrived.  The Acadians wondered what they were for.  Eleven more ships arrived over the next few days.  On Sept. 2, Winslow took a whaleboat to Ft. Edward to meet with Murray to draft the “Proclamation to the Inhabitants” as follows. 
                    “To the inhabitants of the district of Grand Pre, Minas, River Canard and places adjacent, as well ancients as young men and lads.” “Whereas His Excellency the Governor has instructed us of his late resolution respecting the matter proposed to the inhabitants, and has ordered us to communicate the same in person, His Excellency being desirous that each of them should be satisfied of His Majesty’s intentions, which he has also ordered us to communicate to you, as they have been given to him: We, therefore, order and strictly, by these presents, all of the inhabitants as well of the above-named district as of all the other districts, both old and young men, as well as the lads of ten years of age, to attend at the church at Grand Pre, on Friday, the 5th instant, at three in the afternoon, that we may impart to them what we are ordered to  communicate to them, declaring that no excuse will be admitted on any pretense whatsoever, on pain of forfeiting goods and chattels, in default of real estate.

 “Given at Grand Pre, 2nd September, 1755.  John Winslow.” 
 
September 4, 1755
     Winslow wrote on Sept. 4 in his journal that in the morning he sent for Dr. Rodion (Dr. Whitworth) to have him deliver the Citation to the people, who were busy harvesting.The next day, 418 men entered the church. 

September 5, 1755
     After they entered, Winslow had a table set up in the middle of the church.  He got into place and flanked by soldiers (New Englanders).  He read to them the following:

by Nelson Surette
The Declaration ... Sept. 5, 1755
               "Gentlemen, - I have received from his Excellency, Governor Lawrence, the King's Commission which I 
          have in my hand, and by whose orders you are conveyed together, to Manifest to you His Majesty's final 
          resolution to the French inhabitants of this his Province of Nova Scotia, who for almost half a century 
          have had more Indulgence Granted them than any of his Subjects in any part of his Dominions. What use 
          you have made of them you yourself Best Know.”
               "The Part of Duty I am now upon is what thoh Necessary is Very Disagreeable to my natural make and 
          temper, as I Know it Must be Grievous to you who are of the Same Speciea.”
                "But it is not my business to annimadvert, but to obey Such orders as I receive, and therefore without 
          Hesitation Shall Deliver you his Majesty's orders and Instructions, Vist::”
                "That your Land & Tennements, Cattle of all Kinds and Livestocks of all Sorts are forfeited to the Crown 
          with all other your effects Savings your money and Household Goods, and you yourselves to be removed 
          form this Province.”
                "Thus it is Preremtorily his Majesty's orders That the whole French Inhabitants of these Districts be 
          removed, and I am Throh his Majesty's Goodness Directed to allow you Liberty to Carry of your money and 
          Household Goods as Many as you Can without Discommoding the Vessels you Go in. I shall do Every thing 
          in my Power that all those Goods be Secured to you and that you are Not Molested in Carrying of them of, 
          and also that whole Family Shall go in the Same Vessel, and make this remove, which I am Sensable must 
          give you a great Deal of Trouble, as Easey as his Majesty’s Service will admit, and hope that in what Ever 
          part of the world you may Fall you may be Faithful Subjects, a Peasable & Happy People.”
                “I Must also Inform you That it is his Majesty’s Pleasure that you remain in Security under the Inspection 
          and Direction of the Troops that I have the Honr. to Command.”
 
     He basically said your are prisoners and your belongings are forfeited.  He retired to the priest’s house, where some of the older Acadians went and begged him to consider their families, who didn’t know what had happened. ]
      Winslow allowed 20 men (10 on each side of the Cornwallis) to go back and tell the women and children that they wouldn’t be harmed.  They were also to bring back any who hadn’t shown up, with the men still in captivity held responsible.  The family & friends of those imprisoned had to provide them with food.  Though they could move about the enclosure, they couldn’t go east of the officers’ quarters. 
by Claude Picard

September 7, 1755
      By the 7th, only 5 transports had shown up.  There were now 424 prisoners.  The prisoners had been allowed (20 a day) to return and spend a night with their families.  On the 10th, the people sent a request to Winslow that they be allowed to go to French soil and be given time to get ready.

A Final Look by George Rodrigue
A FINAL LOOK by George Rodrigue
     They even offered to pay their way.  Winslow noted that there was more commotion among the Acadians that morning.  So he planned to put 50 young men on each of the 5 ships to lessen the danger of rebellion.  Pierre Landry (who spoke English) was summoned and told to prepare the 250 men.  The men, in columns 6 deep, were on the left of the whole group, with 80 armed soldiers around them.  The order was given to march, but none moved.  You can imagine the scene, crying, pleading, calling out to each other. 
     Boys said they wouldn’t leave without their fathers, but Winslow couldn’t understand them.  The soldiers brandished their bayonets and the men were forced to start moving.  People from the villages lined the road down to the landing place at Gasperau, 1.5 miles away.  They were put aboard smaller vessels and shuttled out to the ships.  Boats carried as many wives & mothers as they could carry each day to the ships to bring provisions.  There were 363 soldiers at Grand Pre.  It seems that they hated the French, since Winslow had to make an order to protect them. 
     By mid September, Winslow had finished a list of people and livestock.  The harvest had not been completed. 

     An Acadian woman who was there told her story of the deportation of what had happened.  It was recorded by Thomas Miller for the Historical and Genealogical Record of the first settlers of Colchester County. 

October 7-8, 1755
     The final boarding began Oct. 8.  More ships had arrived.  On Oct. 7, 24 men had escaped ship.  Francois HEBERT was suspected as having come up with the plan.  He was taken off the ship he had boarded that day and brought to his house, which was burned down while he watched. [Herbin, 116]
     Notice was given that if the escapees didn’t return in 2 days, their friends would be treated likewise and their household goods confiscated.  With the aid of Pierre Landry 22 returned (2 had been shot by a search party while trying to escape).  Winslow writes that he began to embark the inhabitants on the 8th.  Women were carrying their children and were in great distress.  The belongings and the elderly were taken in carts.  The Grand Pre and Gaspereau areas were cleared quickly.  They loaded at Boudro’s Point (between the Canard and Cornwallis Rivers).  They were packed onboard, crowded to the point of suffocation ... but there was still not enough space for everyone.  Most of their belongings, such as furniture and household items, were left behind in the carts ... to be found by English settlers in 1760. 
     Sailing orders were given by Lawrence on the 13th. (Some give this as the sailing date.)

October 27, 1755
     Finally on the 27th, the fleet of 14 vessels (2 connvoyed by frigates) set sail.  There were 2898 people on board.  Dudley LeBlanc made up a list of the men deported from Grand Pre.  The vessels went to Philadelphia (3), Maryland (4), Boston (1), and Virginia (5). 
     Note:  In Naomi E.S. Griffiths' - "The Acadian Deportation:  Deliberate Perfidy or Cruel Necessity", p. 9, she says that they sailed on the 29th. 
 Deportees: 1755-1760
    Grande Pre      2182 
    Port Royal      1664 
    Pisiquid       ~1100 
    Beaubassin     ~1100 
                  ------- 
                   ~6050

    The first wave of deportations included about 24 vessels.  They were escorted by 3 ships: the Nightingale (under Capt. Diggs), the snow Halifax (under Capt. Taggart), and the armed schooner Warren (under Capt. Adams).  Though we don't have a complete listing, here are some of the ships.
     Sailing from Pisiquid were the following ships: 
     Sloop Ranger            Capt Piercy    91 tons     182 Men (323 aboard)
     Sloop Dolphin           Capt Farnam    87 tons     174 Men (227 aboard)
     Schooner Neptune        Capt Davis     90 tons     180 Men
     Schooner Three Friends  Capt Carlile   69 tons     138 Men
     Sailing from Mines and Canard were the following ships:
     Sloop Seaflower         Capt Donnell   81 tons     180 Men
     Sloop Hannah            Capt Adans     70 tons     140 Men
     Schooner Leopard        Capt Church    87 tons     174 Men
     Sloop ----              Capt Milbury   93 tons     186 Men
     Sloop ully & Sarah      Capt Haslum    70 tons     140 Men
     --- Mary                Capt Denny     90 1/2 tons 181 Men
     --- Prosperous          Capt Bragdon   75 tons     150 Men
     --- Endeavor            Capt Jn Stone  83 tons     166 Men
     --- Industry            Capt Goodwin   86 tons     172 Men
     ---                     Capt Puddington 80 tons    160 Men
[Griffiths, 9]
by Claude Picard      Other ships and their accounts can be found in the web pages on the various destinations.  It seems as though a list of the passengers (at least on some of the ships) was made but lost.
     Winslow wrote of the events of that day that they had put “more than two to a ton.”  The people were very crowded.  There hadn’t been room for the people of the villages of Antoine, Landry, and some of the Canard (98 families; about 600 people).  He moved 
them from Boudro’s Point to houses near the camp at Grand Pre.  They had to answer to roll call each sunset, and be ready to leave at any time. 
     When the area on both sides of the Cornwallis had been vacated, Winslow ordered their houses and barns burned.  This was done at the Gaspereau, also. 
     He recorded the following burnings: 
         Nov. 2: Gaspereau 
                        49 houses, 39 barns, 19 outhouses
         Nov. 5: Canard, Habitant, Pereau 
                        76 houses, 81 barns, 33 outhouses
         Nov. 6: Canard, Habitant, Pereau 
                        85 houses, 100 barns, 75 outhouses
         Nov. 7: Canard, Habitant, Pereau 
                        45 houses, 56 barns, 28 outhouses
by Nelson Surette
     The total buildings burned consisted of: houses (255), barns (276), outhouses (155), mills (11), church (1) ... 698 structures.   The houses being used by the remaining Acadians at Grand Pre weren’t destroyed until December.  Also, Winslow shipped 1,510 and Osgood 732 (2,242 total). 
       Ninety soldiers were sent to Port Royal on Nov. 3.  On Nov. 14, Winslow and 51 men went to Halifax.  Osgood stayed in Grand Pre with the 650 Acadians.  On Dec. 13, two ships carried away 350 of them (one to Boston, one to Connecticut).  On Dec. 20, the final 230 were taken in two more vessels (one to Boston, one to Virginia). [Herbin, 100-119]

     The deportation at Beaubassin was not less severe.  Though it was easier for them to escape, some were treated worse than in Grand Pre.   According to Al Lafreniere, "those who were exiled from Chignecto (Fort Beausejour) were seperated from their families purposely. This was to punish the Acadians for participating in the battle with the English at Fort Beausejour."
     One common idea in many Acadian writings is that the British intentionally separated families.  Generally, this was not the case.  Beaubassin was the major source for this idea.  About 100 wives chose to try to avoid exportation rather than join their husbands.  So some of them ended up in different locations.

    Things didn't go so smoothly for Major Handfield at Annapolis Royal.  He wasn't able to gather the local Acadians till December.  So he sent the transports in the bay to Minas.  Three of those vessels went to Pisiquid.  Those that weren't used at Minas were sent back to Annapolis Royal.  Finally, at 5 a.m. on December 8, 1755, those ships set sail from Goat Island with the Port Royal area Acadians..

BOSTON HARBOR by Robert Dafford
BOSTON HARBOR by Robert Dafford
1755 Distribution
    Georgia          400 
    South Carolina   942 
    North Carolina    50 
    Virginia        1500 
    Maryland         913 
    Pennsylvania     454 
    New York         344 
    Connecticut      731 
    Massachusetts    735 
    Bound for N.C.   232 
      (but escaped) 
                   -----
                    6301  
Life aboard the ships
     The trip, though only a few hundred miles for some, was terrible.  They were packed in like sardines.  They had to remain below deck, and only 6 at a time were allowed to go up on deck for about 90 minutes. [Rushton, 51] The weather at the time of the deportation was supposed to be especially severe ... even including an earthquake.  [Gipson, V. 6, p. 287]
     On Oct. 19, 1755, Capt. Alexander Murray (commander of Fort Edward) wrote to Col. Winslow to tell him he needed more ships.  He only had 3 ships and a schooner.  He wrote that if he got no more ships, he'd have to pack the Acadians in the 4 vessels he had ... which clearly weren't sufficient for the number of Acadians. [Maryland Historical Magazine - V III #1 March 1908,  "The Acadians (French Neutrals) Transported to Maryland",  Basil Sollers, p 7]
      If things had been handled properly, the overcrowded ships shouldn't have happened.  As Gipson says in his work, the "miscalculations and the failure of the contractors" led to the overcrowding.  [Gipson, 279]
     Though they had packed what provisions they could, many of their belongings had to be left on the shore for lack of space.  Many could only bring some clothes and personal effects.  All of their livestock was left behind.  This consisted of 43,500 cattle, 48,500 sheep, 23,500 pigs, 2,800 horses, and a variety of fowl. [Richard, v. 2, p. 125] 
     Thirty days provisions were given to each ship.  This consisted of 1 pound of beef, 2 pounds of bread, and 5 pounds of flour per person.  There were also boxes of vegetables like cabbages, turnips, potatoes, and apples. [Selections from Public Documents of the Province of Nova Scotia, p. 280] 

For more info on life aboard ships, see the Sea Travel page.

Temporary asylum for some ...
     Some Acadians (about 1000) tried to hide out in the woods.  About half the Port Royal inhabitants headed for Cap Sable.  Many of these were captured or migrated elsewhere.  Thousands more headed for French territory.  The entire community of Cobequid left as a group, so that when the British soldiers arrived to round them up they found the area deserted.   Many went to the New Brunswick area, and many of these on to Quebec.  It is estimated that 2000 migrated to Isle St. Jean, and some to Isle Royale by Nelson Surette

     The Acadians on Isle St. Jean found that their escape was only temporary.  When Louisbourg fell in 1758, so did Isle Royale and Isle St. Jean.  Even though Isle St. Jean hadn't really participated in the conflict, the English goverment ordered their removal.  The events of the 1758 exile are covered at that webpage. 
      In 1758, some citizens of Halifax wrote a letter to someone in England and mentioned how Lawrence had displaced people “who have behaved with integrity and honesty.”  Lawrence had called the council a pack of scoundrels, and merchants a parcel of villains.  It told how the cattle, etc. of the Acadians had been converted to private use (ie. 3500 hogs and about 1000 cattle were killed at Pisiquid and sent to other places). 
     Perhaps 14,000 of 18,000 Acadians were deported between 1755 and 1763.  Perhaps 8,000 of them died.  [Herbin, 125-128]


     Beginning in 2005, a number of monuments were erected to commemorate the 250th anniversary of the exile.


The 1755 Exile
The 1758 Exile
The "End" of the Exile
Exile Destinations
England | Quebec | New Brunswick | Prince Edward Island | Nova Scotia | France
St. Domingue | Martinique | French Guiana | Falkland Islands | St. Pierre & Miquelon | Louisiana
American Colonies
Connecticut | Georgia | Maryland | Massachusetts | New York | Pennsylvania | South Carolina

The Acadian FlagCopyright © 1997-09 Tim Hebert






An Acadian woman who was there told her story of the deportation of what had happened.  It was recorded by Thomas Miller for the Historical and Genealogical Record of the first settlers of Colchester County. 
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      On the second day of September, 1755, the French inhabitants of Cobequid Village (now Masstown), lying on the north side of the bay, and upper part of the Township of Londonderry, were engaged in their fields at their work, it being harvest time.  With the afternoon tide three vessels were seen coming up the Bay. Two of them prepared to anchor, one opposite the Village, and the other at Lower Cobequid, whilst the third ran further up the shore. Curiosity was rife. Who were they,and whither were they going!  Their curiosity was still heightened by the appearance of a person in the garb of a curate, who informed them that the following notice ~ as posted on the door of the Church: "'To the inhabitants of the Village of Cobequid, and the surrounding shores, as well ancient as young men and lads, ordering them all to repair to the Church the next day at three P.M. and hear what he had to say to them." Signcd by John Winslow.
     Meanwhile the sailors landed, and were freely supplied with milk, and anything they wanted, by the farmers. Small parties of Soldiers landed, chatted with the people, examined their farms, or strolled to the uplands in search of partridges, and in the afternoon of the third day of September they joined the people as they repaired to the Church. The moon rose, and the sisters strolled out and ran to the Church to a certain the cause of their delay. When they arrived at the Church, to their great  astonishment, they found it surrounded by soldiers, who answered their inquiries by pointing their bayanets, and ordering them to go home. They met many of the women from the houses nearest the Church, and all anxious and sad at the detention of their friends. At daybreak the following notice was read, which was stuck on the fence opposite the Church: ''Cobequid, September 4, 1755. All officers, Soldiers, and Seamen employed in His Majesty's Service, as well as all His subjects, of what denomination soever, are hereby notified that all cattle, viz., horses, horned cattle, sheep, goats, hogs, and poultry of every kind that was supposed to be Vested in the French inhabitants of this Province, have become forfeited to His Majesty, whose property they now are; and every person of what denomination soever, is to take care not to hurt, destroy, or kill any of the above named animals, nor to rob orchards or gardens, or to make waste of anything in these districts, without special
order given at my camp, the day and place to be published througliout the Camp, and at the Village where the Vessels lie.  Signed by John Winslow, Lieut.-Colonel Commanding."
     When the people read this notice they were speechless with terror; death stared them in the face. In the meantime three hundred men and boys found themselves close prisoners in their own Church. Some of the boys screamed aloud, some attempted to force the door, but they were overawed by the muskets of their guards. Day dawned at length over the wretched prisoners; they wished to be allowed to return to their families for food; this was refused, but their families were ordered to supply food to them. A few of these prisoners were sent out during the day to inform those who dwelt at a distance from the Church if they did not immediately surrender, their houses would be burnt and their nearest friends shot. One of these messengers attempted to escape; he was shot, and his house and
barn set on fire. Thus the work of destruction was commenced. About ,"200 married women and upwards of 100 young women, besides children, were ordered to collect what they could of apparel, and prepare to embark. In vain the men entreated to know wither they were going, but no answer was given. By  noon, the 5th of September, the beach was piled with boxes, baskets and bundles; behind them were crowds of weeping women and children; children crying for their mothers, and mothers looking for their children; sick men and bedridden women were carried by strong maidens, or tipped out of their carts which bore them to the spot.  A little before highwater the prisoners in the Church were ordered to form six deep and march to the place of embarkation; they refused to obey the command. The troops were ordered to fix bayonets and advance on the prisoners. This act produced obedience, and they commenced to march. When they came to the beach, and saw their property, their mothers, wives, children, and sisters kneeling on each side of the road, one long, loud wail of anguish went up from them on account of being so suddenly torn away from their houses and homes, the place of their nativity, their flocks and fields, which were then covered with the crops of the season, with some of the wheat cut, and the remainder ready for cutting, and separated from their wives and families, leaving behind them their Church and the graves of their kindred, to be dispersed among strangers in a strange land, among a people whose customs, laws, language, and religion were strongly opposed to their own. The women were ordered the same afternoon to embark in another ship. About midnight all were on board, except one or two women who had escaped to visit their forsaken houses the next morning, and witness the sad havoc that had been made the night before by some of the British soldiers who remained, by setting fire to a number of the houses of the village. Among these was the Chapel, of 100 feet in length and 40 feet in breadth, which contained a large, heavy bell. This chapel stood in a field which is now owned by Alexander Vance, near the house of Mr. Lightbody, of Masstown. This place took its name from the fact that the French had their place of worship or masshouse there. Mr. Vance informed the writer, that he had recently ploughed up some of the melted metal of the bell, and the spot upon which it stood was pointed out Mr. Thomas Fletcher, who was one of the first settlers in this place after the French were driven out. 
     The transport ship with the men on board drifted down to the mouth of the Avon River, and there awaited the other vessel that had the women and children on board. At daybreak she was in sight, and they drifted down the Bay with the saddest freight on board that ever sailed out of Cobequid; and as the vessels stood out to pass Blomidon, the third vessel that had run further up the Bay joined them, freighted with the French inhabitants who Here gathered from the places now called Onslow, Truro, Clifton, and Selma. 
    With a favorable wind these miserable, houseless, homeless wanderers were borne out of sight of the place of their nativity; night hid from their view forever the blue mountains of Cobequid. 
    It may here be mentioned that while the French inhabitants of Truro were hunted by the British soldiers as the partridge on the mount, some of them fled for a hiding place, and encamped in the woods up the Salmon River, in the deep of the brook Mr. William Murray had his mills on recently, and from this the brook took its name as French Village Brook. One of the females who had escaped, or had been left behind on account of a boat being overloaded, returned that night to her former place of abode, and there remained during the night altogether unconscious. In the morning, when she returned to consciousness she was too weak to stand; it was some hours before she realized the full horrors of her situation. After a time she was able to crawl to the door, and there the scene which surrounded her was fearful. The first object she beheld was the Church, the beautiful Mass House, a blackened heap of ruins. She was recalled to a sense of her forlorn situation by her cow which came to her, asking by her lowing to be milked. She milked her cow and partook of some of the milk with a crust of bread, which revived her so much that she set out to see if she could find any one remaining in the village; but there was no one to be found.  Cattle had broken into the fields, and were eating the wheat; horses were running in droves through the fields. On the evening of that day, cows and goats came up to their accustomed milking-place, and lowed around the desserted dweelingspigs yet fastened in the pens squealed with hunger; and the oxen, waiting for the master's hand to free them from the yoke (for the were used in moving the goods to the vessels) were bellowing in agaony of hunger; they hooked and fought with each other, running through tile marsh, upsetting the carts or tumbling into ditches, until death put an end to their sufferings.   The pigs were rooting up the gardens. She sat down on the doorstep beholding the desolation of the Village, when an indian approached her and told her to come with him. She inquired the fate oi her people.  "Gone," said he, "all gone," pointing down the Bay; "the people everywhere are prisoners; see the smoke rise·, they will burn all here to-night." He pointed up the Bay; two or three blazing fires attested the Indian`s story as true. He assisted her in gathering some of the most valuable things that were left. The Indian then piloted her to his wigwam, near the edge of the forest; here she found about a dozen of her people, the remnant left of what was once the happy settlement of the village of Cobequid (now Masstown). They waited about the woods on the north side of the Bay for more than a month to set if any more stragglers could be found before they would start to go to Miramichi. At length they were joined by about twenty of the French inhabitants who had escaped from Annapolis. These persons informed them that: the houses and crops in Annapolis were burnt by the soldiers who were sent up the river to bring them to the ships. Some fled to the woods; some, besides this party, crossed the Bay, intending to go to Miramichi through the woods. After another week's travel they met with a party that had escaped from Shepoudie (now called Shubenacadie).  From these persons they learned that about two hundred and fifty buildings were burned along the sides of the river, and that while they were firing the Mass House there, the Indians and French rallied and attacked the British soldiers, and killed and wounded about thirty of them, and drove the remainder back to the ships.
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